Modern Scholarship

MODERN/SECONDARY SOURCES

FOR THE COLUMN OF TRAJAN, ROME

A comprehensive list of books and articles concerned with the history and topography of the Column of Trajan in Rome.  If you would like to add bibliographical references to this list, or spot any errors in citation, please leave a comment or contact roger.ulrich@dartmouth.edu directly.

Agosti, G.and V. Farinella.1988a. “Nuove ricerche sulla Colonna Traiana nel Rinascimento.” In Settis et al., eds. La Colonna Traiana. Turin. 549-97.

Agosti, G.and V. Farinella.1988b. “Il fregio della Colonna Traiana e i Francesi.” In La Colonna Traiana e gli Artisti Francesi da Luigi XIV a Napoleone I (exhibition catalog). Roma. Part I: 19-122.

Agosti, G., and V. Farinella. 1985. “Il fregio della Colonna Traiana. Avvio ad un registro della fortuna visiva.” Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, ser. III, 15: 1103-50.

Alicu, A. 1983. “Elemente de echipament military descoperite la Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegethusa (1).” Acta Musei Napocensis 20: 391-396.

Alicu, A. 1980. “Le camp legionnaire de Sarmizegethusa.” Potaissa 2: 23-28.

Amici, C. M. 1982. Foro di Traiano: Basilica Ulpia e biblioteche. Rome.

Antonescu, T. 1910. Columna Traiană. Studiată din punct de vedere archeologic, geografic și artistic. Iași.

Aurès, M. 1863. Étude des dimensions de la colonne Trajane. Nîmes. [The text is available online].

Baker, M. 1982.  The Cast Courts. (Victoria and Albert Museum). London.

Bărcăcilă, A. 1966. “Les piliers du pont Trajan sur la rive gauche du Danube et la scène CI de Colonne Trajan.” Studii  şi cervetari de istorie veche 17: 645-63.

Bargagli, B. and C. Grosso 1997. I Fasti Ostienses. (Soprintendenza archeologica di Ostia). Rome. [Evidence for the dedication date of the Column].

Bartoli, P.S. (and E. Dzur). 1941. Die Traianssäule, Kupferstich aus em Jahre 1667, die Erklärungen der Reliefs.  Neubearbeitung un Ausstattung von Dzur, E. A. P. Voorburg.

Bartoli, P.S. 1667. Colonna Traiana Eretta dal Senato e Popolo Romano all’Imperatore Traiano Augusto nel suo Foro in Roma. Rome: Giacomo de Rossi (original volume online).

Bastianetto, B. 2001. “Le incisioni e i disegni della Historia utriusque belli dacici di Muziano-Ciacconio: nuovi documenti.” In Tra Damasco e Roma. L’architettura di Apollodoro nella cultura classica. Catalog. Rome. 199-215.

Baumer, L.E., T. Hölscher, and L. Winkler. 1991. “Narrative Systematik und politisches Konzept in den Reliefs der Traianssäule. Drei Fallstudien.” Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 106: 261-95.

Becatti, G. 1982. “La Colonna Traiana, espressione somma del rilievo storico romano.” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt (ANRW), II 12, 1: 535-78. Berlin and New York.

Becatti, G. 1960. La colonna coclide istoriata. Problemi storici, iconografici, stilistici (Studi e Materiali del Museo del”Impero Romano 6) Rome.

Belloni, G.G. 1990. “La colonna Traiana : qualche questione.” Aevum 64: 95-102. [JSTOR access].

Bellori, G.P. 1673. Colonna Traiana: Nouvamente desegnata, et intagliata da Pietro Santi Bartoli. Rome.

Bennett, J. 2001. Trajan: Optimus Princeps.  Bloomington.

Bergmann, M. 1991. “Zur Forschung über die Traians-und Marcussäule von 1865 bis 1945.” Römische Geschichte und Zeitgeschichte in der deutschen und italienischen Altertumswissenschaft während des 19, und 20, Jahrunderts, II, Côme. 201-24.

Bethe, E. 1945. Buch und Bild im Altertum. Leipzig. [Comment on the relationship between frieze and scroll on the Column, 80-83].

Bianchi Bandinelli, R. 1978. “La Colonna Traiana: documento d’arte e documento politico (o della libertà dell’artista).” in R. Bianchi Bandinelli, ed. Dall’ellenismo al Medio Evo. Rome. 123-140.

Bianchi Bandinelli, R. 1950. “Il Maestro delle imprese di Traiano.” Storicità dell’arte classica.  Florence (3rd edition 1973): 347-380.

Birt, T. 1907. Die Buchrolle in der Kunst. Leipzig. [commentary on the origins of the frieze on the column, 269ff].

Blyth, P.H. 1992. “Apollodorus of Damascus and the Poliorcetica.” Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 33: 127-158. Online access to article.

Bober, H. 1948. Review of K. Weitzman.  Art Bulletin 30: 284-288 [considers the existence of pattern books — or scrolls — for the creation of the spiral frieze].

Bode, R. 1992. “Der Bilderfries der Trajanssäule. Ein Interpretationsversuch.” BonnerJahrb. 192: 123-74.

Boni, G. 1907a. “Trajan’s Column.” Proceedings of the British Academy 3: 1-6. [presentation read on May 29, 1907 and published for the British Academy; discussion of the evidence for a sepulchral chamber in the pedestal, a report on earlier foundations under the area around the Column, and an interpretation of the dedicatory inscription].

Boni, G. 1907b. “Esplorazione del Forum Ulpium.” Notizie degli Scavi: 361-427 [topographical setting of the Column, preexisting structures in the area of the Column].

Brilliant, R. 1986.  “The Column of Trajan and its Heirs: Helical Tales, Ambiguous Trails.” in Visual Narratives. Storytelling in Etruscan and Roman Art: 90-123. Ithaca.

Brilliant, R. 1970. “Temporal Aspects in Late Roman Art.” L’Arte 10: 65-87.

Brizzi, B. 2000. See Coarelli et al. 2000.

Bruno, M. and F. Bianchi. 2006. “La colonna di Traiana alla luce di recenti indagini.” Papers of the British School at Rome. (PBSR) 74: 293-322. [JSTOR access].

Bruston, C. 1920. “L’inscription de la colonne Trajane.” Revue Archéologique 11: 245-48.

Calcani, G., and M. Abdulkarim. 2003. Apollodorus of Damascus and Trajan’s Column: From Tradition to Project. Rome.  Chapters include: “Apollodorus and the Column of Trajan at Damascus” (Calcani) 35-64; “Reproducing Trajan’s Column for Damascus” (Meucci) 65-67.

Chapot, V. 1907. La Colonne torse et le décor en hélice dans l’art antique. Paris. [A general treatment of the subject of spiral motifs on columns that includes a review of eastern prototypes].

Charles, M.B. 2002. “The Flavio-Trajanic ‘miles:’ the Appearance of Citizen Infantry on Trajan’s Column.” Latomus 61: 666-95. [JSTOR access].

Casale, V. 2001. “Pietro da Cortona e il ‘barocco’ della Colonna Traiana.” In Tra Damasco e Roma. L’architettura di Apollodoro nella cultura classica. Catalog. Rome. 221-226.

Cichorius, C. 1896-1900. Die Reliefs der Traianssäule, Text volumes II and III.  Plate volumes: vol I (Die Reliefs des ersten dakischen Krieges) and vol. II (Die Reliefs des zweiten dakischen Krieges). Berlin. Online digital text. View plates.

Claridge, A. 1993. “Hadrian’s Column of Trajan?” Journal of Roman Archaeology [first page].

Coarelli, F. 1974. Guida archeologica di Roma. Verona.

Coarelli, F., B. Brizzi, C. Conti, R. Meneghini, P. Zanker. 2000. The Column of Trajan. Translated by Cynthia Rockwell. Rome.  Includes an introduction by P. Zanker vii-viii;  F. Coarelli, “The Column of Trajan” 1-34; id., “The Dacian Wars in the epitome of Cassius Dio” 35-42; B. Brizzi, “The Forum and Column of Trajan after the Fall of the Empire” 229-44; C. Conti, “The restoration of Trjan’s Column” 245-49; R. Meneghini, “The Temple of the Deified Trajan 250-54.

Comparetti, D. 1906. “Sulla iscrizione della Colonna Traiana.” Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze Morali 15: 575-88. [Full text from Google Books].

Condurachi, E. 1982. “Riflessi della propaganda politica e della strategia militare sui rilievi della Colonna di Traiano.” Colloquio italo-romenoL’Esame Storico-artistico della Colonna Traiana. Rome (Atti dei Convegni Lincei 50): 7-19.

Conti, C. 2001. “Gli scultori della Colonna Traiana.” In Tra Damasco e Roma. L’architettura di Apollodoro nella cultura classica. Catalog. Rome. 199-215.

Coulston, J.C. 2015.  All the Emperor’s Men: Roman Soldiers and Barbarians on Trajan’s Column. Oxbow (Oxford).

Coulston, J.C. 2003. “Overcoming the Barbarian: Depictions of Rome’s Enemies in Trajanic Monumental Art.” In L. De Blois, ed. The Representation and Perception of Roman Imperial Power. (J.C. Gieben) 389-424.

Coulston, J.C. 2001. “Transport and Travel on the Column of Trajan.”  In C. Adams and R. Laurence, eds. Travel and geography in the Roman Empire. (Routledge) 106-37.

Coulston, J.C. 1998. “How to Arm a Roman Soldier.” In M.N. Ausin, J.D. Harries and C.J. Smith, eds., Modus Operandi. How the Ancient World Worked. Papers Presented to Geoffrey Rickman; BICS supplementary, London. 71: 167-90.

Coulston, J.C. 1990a. “The Architecture and Construction Scenes on Trajan’s Column.” In M. Henig, ed. Architecture and Architectural Sculpture in the Roman Empire.  Oxford. 39-50.

Coulston, J.C. 1990b. “Three new books on Trajan’s column.” Journal of Roman Archaeology 3: 290-309.

Coulston, J.C. 1989. “The Value of Trajan’s Column as a Source for Military Equipment.” In C. van Driel-Murray (ed.), Roman Military Equipment: The Sources of Evidence. Proceedings of the Fifth Roman Military Equipment Conference, (BAR International Series 476). Oxford. 31-44.

Coulston, J.C. 1988. Trajan’s Column: The Sculpting and Relief Content of a Roman Propaganda Monument (Ph.D. thesis, Newcastle University).

Courbaud, E. 1899.  Le bas-relief romain à représentations historiques. Étude archéologique, historique, et littéraire.  Paris.

Cresy, E. and G.L. Taylor. 1821-1822. The Architectural Antiquities of Rome. 2 vols. London.

D’Amato, C. 2001. “La Colonna Traiana: da simbolo ideologico a modello materiale. Manifattura e diffusione dei calchi.” In Tra Damasco e Roma. L’architettura di Apollodoro nella cultura classica. Catalog. Rome. 227-250.

Daicoviciu, C. and H. 1966. Columna lui Trajan (second edition 1968). Bucharest.

Davies, G.A.T. 1920. “Topography and the Trajan Column.” Journal of Roman Studies 10: 1-28. (JSTOR e-version).

Davies, G.A.T. 1917. “Trajan’s First Dacian War.” Journal of Roman Studies 7: 74-97.

Davies, P. 1997. “The Politics of Perpetuation: Trajan’s Column and the Art of Commemoration.” American Journal of Archaeology 101: 41-65. [JSTOR e-version].

De Angelis, F. 2014. “Sublime Histories, Exceptional Viewers. Trajan’s Column and Its Visibility.”

De Blois, L., P. Erdkamp, and O. Hekster, eds. 2003. The Representation and Perception of Roman Imperial Power: Proceedings of the Third Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (Roman Empire, c. 200 B.C. – A.D. 476). Amsterdam: Gieben.

Délivré, J. 1988. “Storia materiale dei calchi della Colonna Traiana appartenenti all’Accademia di Francia.” In La Colonna Traiana e gli Artisti Francesi da Luigi XIV a Napoleone I (exhibition catalog). Roma: 261-273.

Del Monte, M., P. Aussett, R.A. Lefèvre 1998. “Traces of ancient colours on Trajan’s Column.” Archaeometry 40: 403-12.

Depeyrot, G. 2007. Optimo Principi: Iconographie, monnaie et propagande sous Trajan.  3 vols. Wetteren.

Dillon, S., and K. Welch, eds. 2006. Representations of War in Ancient Rome. Cambridge. See especially S. Dillon, “Women on the Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius and the Visual Language of Roman Victory.” 246-262.

Domaszewski, A. v. 1906. “Beiträge zur Kaisergeschichte I: Die Dakerkriege Trajans auf den Reliefs der Säule.” Philologus 65: 321-44.

Domaszewski, A. v. 1885. “Die Fahnen im römischen Heer.” In O. Benndorf, ed. Abhandlungen des Archäologischen-Epigraphischen Seminars 5. Vienna. 1-80.

Donaldson, T.L. 1859. Architectura Numismatica, or Architectural Medals of Classic Antiquity. London.

Dudley, D.R. 1967. Urbs Roma: A Source Book of Classical Texts on the City and its Monuments. Aberdeen.

Dzur, E.A.P. 1941.  Die Trajanssäule (see Bartoli 1941).

Fabbricotti, E. 1996. “Considerazioni sul fregio della Colonna Traiana : II.” Studi Miscellanei (in memoria di Lucia Guerrini) 30: 229-34.

Farinella, V. 1981. “La colonna Traiana: Un esempio di lettura verticale.” Prospettiva 2.6: 2-9.

Fauci, C. 2007. “La colonna Traiana.” Forma Vrbis 12: 21-7.

Fehr, B. 1985. “Das Militär als Leitbild. Politische Funktion und gruppenspezifische Wahrnehmung des Traiansforums und der Traianssäule.” Hephaistos, 7-8: 39-60.

Ferri, S. 1982. “Riesame dei problemi archeologici della Colonna Traiana relativamente alle sue varie funzioni.” In L’esame storico-artistico della Colonna Traiana. Colloquio italo-romeno, Roma 25 ottobre 1978. 61-65.

Ferri, S. 1940. “Colonna Traiana.” Capitolium 15: 838-844.

Ferri, S., 1939. “Sull’origine della Colonna Traiana.” Rendiconti dell’Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. Ser. VI, 15: 343-56.

Ferris, I.M. 2000. “The Trajanic Barbarian.” Chapter 3 of Enemies of Rome: Barbarians Through Roman Eyes. Gloucestershire: 61-85.

Florescu, F.B. 1969. Die Trajanssäule: Grundfragen und Tafeln. Bucharest/Bonn (translation of the original Romanian text by A. Pancratz). Review by J.M.C. Toynbee 1970. Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire 48 881-882.

Froehner, W. 1872-1875. La colonne Trajane, d’après le surmoulage exécuté à Rome en 1861-1862. Paris.

Froehner, W. 1865. La Colonne Trajane (second edition includes plates, 1872-1874, reprinted by Nabu Press in 2010). Paris. [e-version from Google Books and illustrations by M. Jules Duvaux].

Gamber, O. 1964. “Dakische und sarmatische Waffen auf den Reliefs der Trajanssäule.” JKSW 60: 7-34.

Galinier, M. 2007. La colonne trajanne et les forums impériaux. (Collection de l’École française de Rome) Rome. Available on Open Edition Books.

Gauer, W. 1977. Untersuchungen zur Trajanssäule. Erster Teil Darstellungsprogramm und künstlerischer Entwurf.  (Monumenta Artis Romanae 13). Berlin.

Gauer, W. 1973. “Ein Dakerdenkmal Domitians. Die Trajanssäule und das sogenannte grosse trajanische Relief.” Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 88: 318-50.

Goethert, F.W. 1936. “Trajanische Friese.” Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 51: 72-81.

Goldman, N.W. 1994. “Roman Footwear.”  In J.L. Sebesta and L. Bonfante, eds. The World of Roman Costume. Madison. 101-29.

Gostarv, N. 1979. “L’armée romaine dans les guerres Daces de Trajan.”  Dacica 23: 115-122.

Goudy, F.W. 1936. The capitals from the Trajan column at Rome. New York. (with 25 plates drawn and engraved by the author).

Groh, V. 1925. “La colonna di Traiano.” Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei fasc. 1-2: 215-55.

Haftmann, W. 1939. Das italienische Säulenmonument.  Berlin and Leipzig.

Hamberg, G. 1945. “The Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius and their Narrative Treatment: the Epic-Documentary Tradition in the State Reliefs.”  Chapter 3 in Studies in Roman Imperial Art, with Special Reference to the State Reliefs of the Second Century. Copenhagen: 104-161. [Includes a good review of scholarly approaches to the Column up to the author’s time of publication].

Henig, M., ed. 1990. Architecture and Architectural Sculpture in the Roman Empire. Oxford.

Hölscher, T. 2004. The Language of Images in Roman Art. Translated by A. Snodgrass and Annemarie Künzl-Snodgrass.  Cambridge. (Preview in Google Books; on the role of barbarians, including Dacians, as generating pathos from the viewer).

Huet, V. 1996. “Stories One might Tell of Roman Art : Reading Trajan’s Column and the Tiberius Cup.” In J. Elsner, ed. Art and Text in Roman Culture. Cambridge.  9-31.

Hungerford J. Pollen 1874. A description of the Trajan Column. London.

Jones, P. 2000. “Juvenal, the Niphates, and Trajan’s Column: (Satire 6.407-412).” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. 477-486. [JSTOR Access].

Kampen, N. 1995. “Looking at Gender: The Column of Trajan and Roman Historical Relief.” In Domna Stanton and Abigail Stewart, eds. Feminisms in the Academy. Ann Arbor 46-73.

Koeppel, G.M. 2002. “The Column of Trajan: Narrative Technique and the Image of the Emperor.” In Philip A. Stadter and Luc Van der Stockt, eds. Sage and emperor : Plutarch, Greek intellectuals, and Roman power in the time of Trajan (98-117 A.D.). (Symbolae Facultatis Litterarum et Philosophiae Lovaniensis. Ser. A ; 29): 245-.

Koeppel, G. M. 1991. “Die historischen Reliefs der römischen Kaiserzeit VIII, Der Fries der Trajanssäule in Rom, Teil 1: Der Erste Dakische Krieg, Szenen I-LXXVIII.” BJb 191: 135-197.

Koeppel, G. M. 1992. “Die historischen Reliefs der römischen Kaiserzeit IX, Der Fries der Trajanssäule in Rom, Teil 2: Der Zweite Dakische Krieg, Szenen LXXXIX-CLV.” BJb 192: 61-121.

Koeppel G.M. 1982. “Official State Reliefs of the City of Rome in the Imperial Age. A Bibliography.” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt (ANRW) II, 12, 1 477-506.

Koeppel G.M. 1980. “A Military Itinerarium on the Column of Trajan: Scene L.” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung 87: 301-6.

Kousser, R. 2006. “Conquest and Desire : Roman ‘Victoria’ in Public and Provincial Sculpture.” In S. Dillon and K. Welch, eds. Representations of war in ancient Rome.  Cambridge. 218.

Krierer, K.R. 2002. “Konzept, Struktur und narrative Methode der Bildprogrammatik römischer Triumphsäulen. Trajanssäule und Mark Aurel-Säule.” Krieg und Sieg. Narrative Wanddarstellungen von Altägypten bis ins Mittelalter. Vienna. 161-173.

Kuttner, A. 1996. “Trajan’s Column.” DoA 26: 791-2.

La Rocca, E. 2004. “Templum Traiani et columna cochlis.” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung 111: 193-238.

Lancaster, L. 1999. “Building Trajan’s Column.” American Journal of Archaeology 103: 419-39.

Lanciani, R. 1897 (reprinted 1967). The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome. Reprinted by Bell Publishing Company: New York, and available online.

Laurand, L. 1940. “Note sur les moulages complets de la colonne Trajane.” REL 18: 52-4.

Leach, E.W. 1990. “The Politics of Self-Presentation: Pliny’s Letters and Roman Portrait Sculpture.” Classical Antiquity 9: 14-39.

Lehmann-Hartleben, K. 1926. Die Trajanssäule. Ein römisches Kunstwerk zu Beginn der Spätantike, Berlin and Leipzig. (The ground-breaking study of the Column as a product of the Roman artistic imagination).

Lepper, F. and S. Frere. 1988, (rev.) 2015. Trajan ‘s Column : A New Edition of the Cichorius Plates. Gloucester, UK and Wolfeboro, NH. Revised edition 2015: Fonthill media.

Löwy, E. 1924. “Apollodor und die Reliefs der Trajanssäule.” Strena Buliciana. Zagreb. 73-

Lugli, G. 1960. “La tomba di Traiano.” In Omagiu lui Constantin Daicoviciu. Bucharest. 333-338.

MacKendrick, P. 1975. The Dacian Stones Speak.  Chapel Hill.

Maffei, S. 1995. “Forum Traiani: Columna.” In Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae (LTUR) Vol. 2: 356-9.

Malacrino, C.G. 2005. “Immagini e narrazioni.  La Colonna Traiana e le sue scene di cantiere.” In G. Guidarelli and C.G. Malacrino, eds. Storia e narrazione. Retorica, memoria, immagini. Milano. 101-34. [Downloadable PDF].

Malasev, V.Ju. 1988. “Les Sarmates sur la colonne de Trajan.” La culture matérielle de l’Orient, I: 69-88.

Malissard, A. 1982. “Une nouvelle approche de la colonne Trajane.” ANRW II, 12. 1: 579-606.

Malissard, A. 1976a. “L’expression du temps sur la Colonne Trajane.” In R. Chevallier, ed., AION, Le Temps chez les Romains: 157-182. Paris.

Malissard, A. 1976b. “La comparison avec le cinéma: Permet-elle de mieux comprendre la frise de la Colonne Trajane?” Römische Mitteilungen 83: 165-174.

Malissard, A. 1976c. “Les barbares sur la colonne Trajane.” Les Dossiers de l’Archéologie 17: 65-87.

Marinescu-Nicolajsen, L. 1999. “La Colonne Trajane: Le Triptyque de la Victoire.  Contribution à une nouvelle interpretation de la Scène IX.” Mélanges de l’Ecole française de Rome 111: 273-310. [e-access persee website].

Martines, G. 2001. Colonna Traiana. Corpus dei disegni Rome.

Martines, G. 1992. “L’ordine architettonico della Colonna Traiana.” Saggi in onore de Renato Bonelli (Quaderni dell’Istituto di storia dell’architettura, nuova ser.) fasc. 15-20. Rome. 1039-48.

Martines, G. 1989. “Osservazioni sulla Colonna Traiana.” in Per Carla Guglielmi.  Scritti di allievi. Rome. 107-120.

Martines, G. 1984. “La Colonna Traiana.” FMR 23.

Martines, G. 1983. “La struttura della Colonna Traiana: un’esercitazione di meccanica alessandrina.” Prospettiva 32: 60-71.

Mau, A. 1907. “Die Inschrift der Trajanssäule.” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung 22: 187-97.  [Google Books accessible].

Mazzarino, S. 1982. “Introduzione alla seconda Guerra Dacica di Traiano.” In “L’esame storico-artistico della Colonna Traiana.” Roma, 25 ottobre 1978,  Atti dei Convegni Lincei 50: 21-54.

Mazzarino, S. 1979.  “Note sulle guerre Daciche di Traiano: reditus del 102 e itus del 105.” Rheinisches Museum für Philologie. Neue Folge, 122:173-84. [JSTOR access].

Meneghini, R. 1989. “Roma. Ricerche nel Foro di Traiano-Basilica Ulpia: un esempio di sopravivenza di strutture antiche in età medieval.” Archeologia Medievale, 16: 541-57.

Morelli, A. and A.F. Gori 1752.  Columna Trajana Exhibens Historiam Utriusque Belli Dacici A Trajano Caesare Augusto Gesti. Amsterdam. [e-version from Heidelberg].

Nardoni, D. 1986. La Colonna Ulpia Traiana, Rome.

Nasari, O. 1907-1908. “L’iscrizione della Colonna traiana.” Atti della Reale Accademia delle Scienze, Torino 43: 595-613.

Nasrallah, L.S. 2010. Christian Responses to Roman Art and Architecture. Cambridge. See especially “The Column of Trajan.” 123-130.

Nash, E. 1961-1962. Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome. 2 vols. London.

Ohlsen, W. 1981. Monumentalschrift, Monument, Mass: Proportionierung des Inschriftalphabets und des Sockels der Trajanssaule in Rom. Hamburg.

Packer, J.E. 2001.  The Forum of Trajan in Rome.  A Study of the Monuments in Brief.  Berkeley.

Packer, J.E. 1997. The Forum of Trajan in Rome: A Study of the Monuments. 3 vols. Berkeley.

Packer, J. E. 1994. “Trajan’s Forum again: the Column and the Temple of Trajan in the master plan attributed at Apollodorus (?).” Journal of Roman Archaeology 7: 163-82.

Panaitescu, E. 1923. “Il ritratto di Decebalo.” Ephemeris Dacoromana. Annuario della Scuola Romena di Roma 1. 387-413.

Panvini Rosati, F. 1958.  “La Colonna sulle monete di Traiano.” Annali dell’Istituto Italiano di Numismatica. 5-6. 29-40.

Patsch, C. 1937. “Der Kampf um den Donauraum unter Domitian und Trajan.” Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 217: 1-252.

Pensa, M. 1969-1970. “L’architettura traianea attraverso le emissioni monetali coeve.” Atti CESDIR (Centro studi e documentazione sull’Italia romana) 2: 237-97.

Pensabene, P. et al. 1989. “Foro Traiano.  Contributi per una ricostruzione storica e architettonica.” Archeologica Classica 41: 27-292.

Percier, P. 1787. Restauration des monuments antiques. La colonne Trajane. Paris.

Petersen, E. 1905. Nuovi risultati storici della interpretazione della Colonna Traiana in Roma.  Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Scienze Storiche. II. Roma. 3.

Petersen, E. 1899-1903. Traians dakische Kriege nach den Säulenreliefs erzählt. 2 vols. Leipzig. [The first serious critique of the views and conclusions of Cichorius].

Pinatel, C. 1988. “Les moulages de la Colonne Trajane à Versailles, provenant de l’Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Paris et antérieurs à 1800.” In La Colonna Traiana e gli Artisti Francesi da Luigi XIV a Napoleone I (exhibition catalog). Roma: 274-280.

Pogorzelski, R. 2012. Die Traianssäule in Rom : Dokumentation eines Krieges in Farbe. Mainz-am-Rhein. Contains hypothetical reconstructions of the color scheme used on the Column.

Pollen, J.H. 1874. A Description of the Trajan Column. London.

Pomponi, M. 1991-1992. “La Colonna Traiana nelle incisioni de P.S. Bartoli. Contributi allo studio del monumento nel XVII secolo.” Rivista dell’Istituto Nazionale d’Archeologia e Storia dell’Arte. 14-15: 347-78.

Poulter, A.G. 1992. “Trajan’s Column and the Dacian Wars.” Britannia 23: 331-3.

Poulter, A.G. 1986. “The Lower Mosian Limes and the Dacian Wars of Trajan.” Studien zu den Militärgrenzen Roms III, 13 (Internationaler Limeskongress Aalen 1983): 519-528.

Poulter, A.G. 1971. Trajan’s Column and the Dacian Wars. London.

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