The First Dacian War: Reliefs Scene-by-Scene on Trajan’s Column in Rome

For the sake of convenience, simplicity, and convention the individual scenes and the clustering of scenes into separate events of the Dacian campaigns follow the divisions originally created by Conrad Cichorius (1896-1900; see bibliography or the original plates).  The “clusters” below mirror those used in the commentary published by Lepper and Frere (1988).   As this site grows I hope to include  summaries of some of the modern controversies surrounding the identification of scene, events, and topography.  A good place to review scholarship before the mid 1980s on this topic can be found in Lepper and Frere (1988, with commentary) and Koeppel (1982 – sources only).  I have included some introductory comments on the composition and precedents for the reliefs on the Column on a separate page.

The titles used for each photo in the galleries below contain two sets of Roman numerals.  The first refers to the corresponding Plate (or Plates) in the original publication by Cichorius.  The second Roman numeral refers to the scene number.  This system matches the one used to label the Plates in the atlas of Coarelli et al. (2000).  Unless otherwise noted, all photographs and composite photographs in the galleries here are by R. B. Ulrich.

This page is updated regularly as more images are collected and processed. Some images may be viewed in 3D by following this link.

Last update: 14 February 2017 including the first of a new series of composite images taken in situ.

The First Dacian War (101-102 CE), Scenes I-V:

The first five scenes on the Column of Trajan depict: Scene I: Watchtowers and Roman soldiers on the banks of the Danube River; Scene II: A river town on the banks of the Danube and the loading of boats; Scene III: A town on the banks of the Danube, and a personification of the river itself; Scene IV: Roman troops cross the river on a pontoon bridge; Scene V: the Roman march.  The formal offensive begins with the crossing of the Roman Army over the Danube River in the year 101 (so, too, a river crossing will mark the beginning of the Second Dacian War).

Trajan's Column: Scenes 1-5: Preparations for War

The first five scenes on the Column of Trajan depict Roman soldiers on the banks of the Danube River, poised to begin their attack on Dacian soil. This group of scenes ends with the crossing of the Roman Army over the Danube River.

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_1-28-se_2098-web.jpg]14.4k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: southeast side
The first three spirals from the southeast "facade" of the Column that faces the Basilica Ulpia and the Forum of Trajan. This is also the side that carries the dedicatory inscription (on the pedestal, just below the image). The blue arrow at the bottom right indicates the beginning of the narrative frieze. The numbers refer to the Cichorius system for identifying individual scenes by number. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2098.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_7804-1-2-web.jpg]12k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 1-2)
Scenes 1/I and 2/II: On the northwest side of the Column on the lowest spiral we see sentries and watchtowers on the left, then the loading up of boats along the riverbank. This is the main axis of the Column from the entrance to the forum complex on the north side. The opposite (SE) side of the Column faces the Basilica Ulpia and carries the dedicatory inscription on the pedestal. Above we see a scene of sacrifice (suovetaurilia) and the portent of the man falling from his horse (Scene 9/IX). From the Column in situ. RBU2013.7804.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_river-scene-1-3-web.jpg]42760TRAJAN'S COLUMN: The River Danube: First Spiral on Trajan's Column
The first events of the first campaign, corresponding to most of Scene I, all of Scene II, and the beginning of Scene III of the Cichorius system. The view is towards the south bank of the Danube, as Trajan's army prepares cross over the river in Dacian territory. From the left: sentries wearing full capes stand between signal towers from which torches protrude. Further on river boats are loaded with bales and barrels against a backdrop of gabled buildings, perhaps warehouses, protected by palisade fencing. At the far right a personification of the River Danube rises from the waters to cast a benign eye on the first march of Roman troops, and lend a sense of divine approbation of the scene. A composite image from the Column in situ.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_1_iv_i_6905a-3798-composite-web.jpg]76761TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IV/I: Forts
Scene 1/I: Comparison between the cast (top) in the Museo della Civilta' Romana and the relief in situ (below).<br />Compare to: Cichorius Plate IV, Scene I; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 1, pg. 45.<br />RBU photo 2011.6905 and 2013.3798
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2077-2080-comp-web.jpg]73280TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: I: Sentries
Scene 1/I: Sentries stand alongside signal towers on the Roman side of the Danube at the beginning of the Dacian War in 101 CE. A composite image from the Column in situ. The waves of the river flow below the feet of the soldiers. Woodpiles and haystacks are ready to provide light and smoke for signaling. The window on the left corresponds to the NE axis of the Column.<br />RBU2013.2077-2080
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_1-2_iv-v_1_panorama1_ppt.jpg]15.1k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IV-V/I: Sentries along the Danube (Scene 1)
Scene 1/I: Roman sentries are depicted standing guard along the Roman side of the Danube river.<br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate IV and V, Scene 1; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 2<br />Ref: RBU2011.iv-v_1_panorama1
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_2_v_i_6908a_ppt.jpg]14.4k3TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/I: Sentries along the Danube
Scene 1/I: Roman sentries are depicted standing guard along the Roman side of the Danube river.<br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate V, Scene 1; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 2<br />Ref: RBU2011.6908
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_3_v_ii_6909a_ppt.jpg]15.3k3TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/II: Loading Ships on the Danube (Scene 2)
Scene 2/II: On the banks of the Danube, outside a fortified village, Roman soldiers load supplies. Here barrels await stacking on the ships. The buildings in the background may be storehouses (horrea; Lepper and Frere (1988: 49). The ship's prow is on the right; the steering rudder on the left.<br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. V, scene 2; Coarelli (2000) Plate 3, pg. 47.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6909
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2050-web.jpg]11k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: Loading Ships on the Danube (Scene 2)
Scene 2/II: Roman soldiers load barrels on to river-craft. A signal tower is visible to the left. The omen of Scene 9 is partially visible above.From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl.V. RBU2013.20150.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_3_v_ii_6910a_ppt.jpg]13.6k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/II: Detail: barrels (Scene 2)
A detail of barrels in Scene 2/II of the Column of Trajan.<br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6910
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_3_v_ii_6911_ppt.jpg]13.4k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/II: Loading Ships on the Danube
Scene 2/II: On the banks of the Danube, outside a fortified village, Roman soldiers load supplies. Barrels are loaded on the left; baled dry goods on the right. The buildings in the background may be storehouses (horrea; Lepper and Frere (1988: 49). <br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome. <br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. V, scene 2; Coarelli (2000) Plate 3, pg. 47.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6911
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_3_v_ii_6912_ppt.jpg]13.3k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/II: Loading Ships on the Danube (Scene 2)
Scene 2/II: On the banks of the Danube, outside a fortified village, Roman soldiers load supplies. An unmanned ship is stacked with dry goods. The buildings in the background may be storehouses (horrea; Lepper and Frere (1988: 49). <br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. V, scene 2; Coarelli (2000) Plate 3, pg. 47.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6912
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2023-web.jpg]10.9k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 3-4): The Danube
Scenes 3/III-4/IV: The last of the Roman ships to be loaded with barrels is docked on the left side of the image (Scene 3/III). In the center (Scene 4/IV), Danuvius, the personification of the River Danube, rises from the riverbed and sees a group of Roman soldiers moving through a gateway. Although the frieze is damaged at the bottom, it is possible to make out the river god's thumb: part of a divine hand that once steadied the Roman ships.From the Column in situ. Comparable to Cichorius Pls. 6/VI and 7/VII. RBU2013.2023.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_4_vi_iii_6913_ppt.jpg]13.4k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN: VI/III: The River Danube
Scene 3/III: In the center, Danuvius, the personification of the River Danube, rises from the riverbed and sees a group of Roman soldiers moving through a gateway.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome. Compare: Cichorius Plate VI, scene 3; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 4.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6913<br />
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_4_vi_iii_6914_ppt.jpg]13.7k0TRAJAN'S COLUMN: VI/III: The River Danube (Scene 3 detail)
Scene 3/III: Detail of a personification of the Danube River (Danuvius) on the Column of Trajan.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. VI, scene 3; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 4. Link to <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/uploads/IMG_2023hdr-web.jpg">relief in situ</a>.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6914
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_4_vii_iv_6915_ppt.jpg]13.2k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN: VII/IV: Roman Troops Cross the Danube (Scene 4)
Scene 4/IV (detail): In 101 CE, Roman troops, carrying their kit over their shoulders, depart from the town gate (or a fortress gate) and start over a pontoon bridge as the personification of the river, Danuvius, looks on. On the right, a legate stands and looks back towards his men. Presumably we are looking at the south bank of the River Danube; the crossing over to the north shore marks the Roman incursion to the Dacian side. The exact point of departure on the Danube has not been resolved.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6915
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2025-web.jpg]10.7k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (SCENES 4-5): Crossing the Danube
Scenes 4/IV-5/V: Roman legionaries distinguished by the wearing of the <i>lorica segmentata</i> cross the River Danube on two parallel pontoon bridges (the second bridge is just visible on the right side of the image; this forms Cichorius's rather arbitrary division between the two scenes). Their helmets are attached to their right shoulders. Each carries his kit on a long javelin, or pilum. A simple pile bridge is visible at the top; this belongs to a construction scene, no. 12/XII. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2025.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2098-cropped-web.jpg]10.6k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 5): FIRST MARCH
SCENE 5/V: Having crossed the pontoon bridges, the army continues its march in the direction of a tribunal and a council of war (Trajan, in his first certain appearance, can be seen seated on the far right). The window visible at the bottom of the photo marks the SE axis of the Column (aligned with the long axis of the forum). From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2098.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_5_cichorius_viii_v_ppt.jpg]13.4k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN: VIII/V: First March
Scene 5/V (plaster cast): Although Cichorius divided the river-crossing scene (#4) from this marching scene (#5), it seems likely that the action continues smoothly from bridge to land. Although some have suggested that the figure just setting foot on enemy territory is Trajan himself, it seems more likely that the first appearance of the emperor is being reserved for the next scene. Public domain image from <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Trajan%27s_Column_-_Cichorius_Plates/">Wikimedia</a>.

The First Dacian War, Scenes VI-XXI:

The 16 scenes introduce many of the themes (except for battle) connected with Trajan’s first campaign in Dacia. Scene VI: Trajan’s first war council; Scene VII: Movement of the Cavalry; Scene VIII: First Suovetaurilia sacrifice; Scene IX: Omen of the fallen man; Scene X: First adlocutio; Scene XI: First scene of fort construction; Scene XII: Additional fort construction with Trajan as overseer; Scene XIII: Sentries and a Roman camp; Scene XIV: The emperor ascends to a hill-top fort; Scene XV: Forest-clearing scene; Scene XVI: Fort construction in the presence of Trajan; Scene XVII: A Roman fort by a stream; Scene XVIII: First Dacian prisoner presented to Trajan; Scene XIX:  Bridge construction; Scene XX: Fort construction with Trajan’s supervision; Scene XXI: Cavalry march in front of a Roman fort.

Trajan's Column: Scenes 6-21: Trajan's First Campaign

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3368-scene-vi-in-situ-web.jpg]32411TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: Scene 6/VI in context
Trajan appears seated for a war council in Scene 6/VI, here highlighted on the east side of the Column (northeast axis is indicated by the line of two visible windows. Above the emperor is a forestry scene (15/XV). The great battle of Scene 24/XXIV occupies the visible surface of spiral no. 4. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.3368.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_7_viii-ix_vi_6916_ppt.jpg]56951TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VI (Scene 6): A Council of War
Scene 6/VI: Trajan appears seated (middle) on a high tribunal made of squared blocks . . . rendered conventionally as if made from stone. He is flanked by two officers. He is probably reviewing the Roman troops marching off to our right. This may be the first time the emperor appears on the Column. Brilliant notes that he is located directly above one of the corner eagles on the pedestal of the Column and faces east, towards both Dacia and the rising sun (1984: 95).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />compare to Cichorius Pl. IX, scene 6; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 7.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6916
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_7_ix_vi_6918_ppt.jpg]51071TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VI (Scene 6): A Council of War
Scene 6/VI: Trajan reviews his troops while seated on a high tribunal, flanked by two high-ranking officers. <br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius, Pl. IX, scene 6; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 7.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6918
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_7_ix_vi_3718-web.jpg]46721TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 6): A Council of War
Scene 6/VI: Trajan (at center) reviews his troops while seated on a high tribunal, flanked by two high-ranking officers. Relief in situ.<br />Compare: Cichorius, Pl. IX, scene 6; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 7. Ref: RBU2013.3718
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_7_ix_vi_6917_ppt.jpg]44870TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VI (Scene 6): A Council of War
Scene 6/VI: An advisor seated to the left of Trajan looks towards the emperor (not visible).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. IX, scene 6; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 7.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6917
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_9876_ppt.jpg]43860TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VI: A Council of War (Scene 6): Trajan
Scene 6/VI: A detail of Trajan in right profile, seated upon his tribunal and reviewing his troops. This is the first certain appearance of the emperor on the Column.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius P. IX, scene 6.<br />Ref: RBU2012.9876.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_composite7-8.jpg]43600TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX-X/VII-VIII (Scenes 7-8)
Scenes 7/VII-8/VIII: A composite image from casts of Trajan's Column. To the left, scene 7, the cavalry moves off. Scene 8 show the first sacrifice scene with priests (A), the emperor making sacrifice before a tent (B) and the preparation for the suovetaurilia (C).<br />Casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates IX and X.<br />Ref: RBU2011.composite7-8
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene-8_6921_composite_ppt.jpg]42400TRAJAN'S COLUMN IX-X/VIII: Lustration and Suovetaurilia (Scene 8)
Scene 8/VIII (composite): The first sacrifice scene on Trajan's Column, Rome.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome. <br />Compare: Cichorius Plates IX and X; Scene 8.<br />Ref: RBU2011.composite6921
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2069-8-web.jpg]28070TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 8): Lustration and Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII: Trajan pours an initial libation (left) as the victimarii lead the pig, ram, and bull to sacrifice. The procession moves around the walls of the camp, led by musicians. The military standards, including the aquila, have been set up at the center of the camp. From the Column in situ.<br />RBU2013.2069
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_8_ix_viii_6922_ppt.jpg]40080TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VIII (Scene 8): Preparation for Sacrifice
Scene 8/VIII: the sacrifice of a boar, a ram, and a bull (not pictured here) to Mars (<a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/?page_id=276 ">suovetaurilia</a>). This type of sacrifice is appropriate for an army on the march. Trajan himself participates in the sacrifice, velate (he stands in the next group to the right, not pictured here). Note the second figure from the left, who appears to be holding a box of incense, and the wreaths of laurel worn in the hair.<br />From a cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. 9, scene 8; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 8.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6922
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_8_x_viii_6923_ppt.jpg]38800TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII (detail): Trajan makes sacrifice, holding a patera (libation dish) over an altar with its flames. A flute-player (the flute is missing, we can see his puffed-out cheeks) stands on the left side of the relief.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6923
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_8_x_viii_6924_ppt.jpg]37492TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII: Detail of attendants at the first suovetaurilia scene (see also scenes 53/LIII and 103/CIII) on Trajan's Column. The right arm and patera of the emperor Trajan are visible over the flames of the altar. The figure with raised hands was originally holding a double flute (probably of metal, long lost). The short figure with long hair is a camillus; in Rome these positions were held by boys; it is possible that on a military campaign slaves were used instead, and the reduced scale might indicate this lowly status.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius plate X, scene 8.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6924
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6925_ppt.jpg]37240TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII: The first suovetaurilia depicted on the Column of Trajan (the rite is also shown in Scenes <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/img_7114-web.jpg">53/LIII</a> and <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes101-110/124_lxxvi_ciii_8158-composite-web.jpg">103/CIII</a>). On the left, Trajan presides over the sacrifice, velate, and holding a patera. At center, a victimarius leads a bull; two other handlers of the sacrifical animals (a ram and a pig) can be seen on the right. A Roman camp spreads off in the background, with Roman tents and military standards.Rome, dedicated 113 CE. The events depicted here took place in 101 CE.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6925
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6926_ppt.jpg]36360TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII: Trajan's Column, Suovetaurilia. Detail of a victimarius and the sacrificial bull.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6926
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6929_ppt.jpg]36471TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII: Suovetaurilia (Scene 8)
Scene 8/VIII: Detail of the sacrificial animals being led to sacrifice (Suovetaurilia). A Roman encampment lies behind the wall.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6929
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6928_ppt.jpg]36040TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Roman encampment
Scene 8/VIII: Detail of Roman tents and military standards in the first encampment scene on the Column of Trajan, Rome (dedicated 113 CE).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. X.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6928
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6927_ppt.jpg]35790TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Standards
Scene 8/VIII: Military standards set up in a Roman camp. In the background, tents.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6927
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2053-8-cropped-music-web.jpg]16650TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Musicians
Scene 8/VIII: <i>tubicenes</i> and <i>cornicines</i> sound their horns during the suovetaurilia. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2053.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6930_ppt.jpg]35270TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Trumpeters
Scene 8/VIII: a group of trumpeters sound their horns during the sacrifice conducted by the emperor himself (on the far left of the scene; not pictured here). The man who has fallen off his mule in the lower right corner of the photograph belongs to the next scene.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate X, Scene 8<br />Ref: RBU2011.6930
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3824-web.jpg]24330TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 9 and 10)
Scenes 9/IX and 10/X: Back-to-back scenes of the emperor in sequence. On the left (Scene 9), Trajan stands on high ground facing the viewer's left and witnesses the "fallen man" incident. Next (Scene 10) he faces to our right in his first adlocutio scene, standing upon a well-built tribunal to address his men.<br />From the Column in situ. Cf. Cichorius Pls. X-XI and Coarelli Pls. 9 and 10. Ref: RBU 2013:3824
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_9_9881_ppt.jpg]36310TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/IX (Scene 9): Trajan and Fallen Man
Scene 9/IX: A somewhat mysterious event where Trajan (middle, top), gestures towards a man who has fallen off of a mule (Settis's "<i>contadino caduto</i>." 1988: 192). The fallen man appears to be a peasant. What is the round object on the side of the mule, under the left arm of the messenger (if that is what he is)? A large mushroom, in reference to that we hear of through literary sources (Dio lxviii 8.1.) inscribed with a message in Latin? A sieve or other form of cooking utensil? Has the man fallen off of his horse under the spell of the majesty of the emperor? Nobody seems to know for sure.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate X, Scene 9<br />Ref: RBU2012.9881<br />
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_9_9882_ppt.jpg]40100TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/IX: Trajan and Fallen Man (detail of Trajan)
Scene 9/IX: Detail of Trajan and his officers on Trajan's Column. <br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate X, Scene 9<br />Ref: RBU2012.9882
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_9__6931_ppt.jpg]34201TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/IX: Trajan and Fallen Man (detail Scene 9)
Scene 9/IX: Detail of the man who has fallen off his mule on the Column of Trajan. He wears a short tunic and is bare-footed. The pose will be replicated later in the rendering of a fallen Dacian in Scene 94. The figure is vertically aligned with the Winged Victory in Scene 78 and has been interpreted as an omen of future victory over the Dacians (Gauer 1977; Settis 1988: 271).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate X, Scene 9<br />RBU2011.6931
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_9_6931_comparison-web.jpg]32700TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/IX: Fallen Man (detail)
Comparison between the 1860 cast (left) of the fallen man in Scene 9 and the current state (right) of the relief on the Column.Compare Cichorius X, scene 9.<br />Ref: RBU.2011.6931-2013.3726
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2042-web.jpg]19450TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 10)
Scene 10/X: The first adlocutio scene on Trajan's Column, Rome. Note the legionaries wearing the lorica segmentata, a breastplate (cuirass) made of overlapping hoops of iron, most holding the characteristic rectangular shield. To the far right, the beginning of Scene 11/XI, a camp-building scene. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2042.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_10_6939_composite_ppt.jpg]34860TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X TO XI: Adlocutio (Scene 10)
Scene 10/X (cast): A composite image of the first adlocutio scene on Trajan's Column, Rome. <br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XI, scenes 10 and the beginning of Scene 11.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6939composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_10_6934_ppt.jpg]34560TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X: Detail: first adlocutio (Scene 10)
Scene 10/X (detail): Trajan's Column, Rome. Adlocutio to assembled soldiers.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XI, scene 10.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6934
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2042-sidexside-web.jpg]31740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X: Detail: first adlocutio (Scene 10)
Scene 10/X: Adlocutio to assembled soldiers. Comparison between the adlocutio scene as it exists now (late 2013) in situ (left) to the cast made in 1860 (right). <br /> Left: RBU photo in situ; Right: Cast #27 in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome. Compare: Cichorius Plate XI, scene 10.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6934-2013.2042.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_10_6935_ppt.jpg]32001TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X: Adlocutio (detail of Trajan, Scene 10)
Scene 10/X Detail of Trajan (on right) addressing his troops in the first adlocutio scene on Trajan's Column. <br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XI, scene 10.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6935
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_10_6937_ppt.jpg]32070TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X: Adlocutio (Scene 10; detail: standard-bearers)
Scene 10/X: Detail of the eagle standards depicted in the first adlocutio scene on Trajan's Column. The standard-bearers (sing. aquilifer) wore lion-skin headgear, visible in the two figures partly obscured by their standards.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XI, scene 10.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6937
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_11-12_6944_composite_ppt.jpg]33720TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI-XII/XI-XII: Construction of a Fort: Full view (Scenes 11-12)
Scenes 11/XI-12/XII composite: Cichorius divides the scene shown here into two episodes, both concerning the construction of forts. Scene 11: a fort made of squared blocks (material could be either sod or stone) and timber nearing completion. Scene 12: Trajan surveys the construction project of what seems to be a second fort (the emperor is visible on the far right). The bridge in the middle and the break in the architectural forms suggest that two separate forts are under construction, although others see this as a single scene. Whether one fort or two, the project is not finished. Legionaries take the active role in the actual building. Auxiliaries, like the two figures in the middle, stand guard.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. XI-XII, Scenes 11 and 12.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6944.composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_11-rbu_3729-web.jpg]18412TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 11)
Scene 11/XI: Detail of a fort-building Scene on Spiral #2, southwest side. In the center a solder excavates a trench; his comrade receives the basket of earth. Compare Cichorius Pl. XI, Coarelli, Pl. 11; Lehmann-Hartleben Pl. 9.From the Column in situ. RBU 2013.3729.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_12-rbu_2027-web.jpg]18531TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 12)
Scene 12/XII; directly above the marching scene that opens the campaign (just visible below), Romans soldiers are at work on a pair of camps. Note the bridge that appears to join the two compounds. To the right, Trajan himself supervises construction. Compare Cichorius Pl. 12; Coarelli Pls. 11-12. RBU2013.2027.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_12_6945_web.jpg]33280TRAJAN'S COLUMN: XII/XII (Scene 12)
Scene 12/XII: Trajan presides over a camp-building scene. The soldiers in the foreground could be cutting sod for the wall (which itself is represented as if of ashlar masonry). Yet no sod blocks are visible . . . perhaps the men are simply digging earth to make a defensive trench in front of the walls.<br />Cast in Museo della Civiltà, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. XII, scene 12<br />Ref: RBU2011.6945
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_13_6947_web.jpg]32350TRAJAN'S COLUMN XII-XIII/XIII (Scene 13)
Scene 13/XIII: Sentries stand in front of a Roman camp. Above/behind the camp a forest-clearing scene anticipates the logging work in scene 15.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà, Rome<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XII-XIII, scene 13.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6947
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3795-web.jpg]24900TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XIV-XV (Scenes 14-15)
Scene 14/XIV dominates this image (15 begins with the forestry scene to the right). Trajan appears to climb towards a hilltop fort that dominates the top of the relief. Two arched doorways are visible. A switchback path moves down the steep slope on the right. Three auxiliaries cross a bridge while a Roman legionary fills a bucket with water from a stream. Taken in situ at the Column of Trajan.<br />RBU2013.3795
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_14_6949_web.jpg]32030TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XIV (Scene 14)
Scene 14/XIV: Trajan, at the upper left, seems to be ascending towards a hilltop fort. The arched gates suggest masonry construction. Wooden watchtowers are built upon the walls, protecting the gates and the corners of the fort. A steep path winds down the hillside from the gate on the right. Three soldiers cross a bridge, while in the foreground a fourth soldier collects water from a stream. Scene 15 begins at the right.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. XIII, scene 14.<br />Ref: RBU 2011.6949
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_14_6950_web.jpg]30740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XIV (detail, scene 14)
Scene 14/XIV: Three soldiers on a bridge. The seam from the juncture of two column drums cuts across their faces.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIII, scene 14.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6950
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_14_6951_web.jpg]30220TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XIV (Scene 14)
Scene 14/XIV: Close view of a soldier gathering water.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIII, scene 14.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6951
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_14-17_6952_composite-web.jpg]31400TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII-XIV (Scenes 14-17)
Composite image of scenes 14, 15, 16, and 17 from Trajan's Column.<br />Casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XIII-XIV, Scene 14-17.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6952_COMP14-17
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_15_3368-scene-xv-web.jpg]15650TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: Scene 15/XV in context
Scene 15/XV, of forest-clearing, is located on the east-northeast face of the column in the third spiral above the War Council Scene (6/VI) and below the great battle of Scene 24/XXIV. Images from the Column in situ. RBU2013.3368.XV
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_15_6952_composite-web.jpg]31130TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII-XIV/XV (Scene 15)
Scene 15/XV (composite): At the center of a forest-clearing scene, two Roman soldiers haul a heavy timber from the forest. Note the pack-mule on the upper right of the image.<br />Casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XIII-XIV, Scene 15.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6952_COMP
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3719-scene15-web.jpg]30081TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XV (Scene 15)
Scene 15/XV: a forest-clearing scene. At the center two Roman soldiers haul a heavy timber from the forest. Metal axes once added to the relief are now lost. Relief sculpture in situ on the Column in the forum of Trajan, Rome.Compare: Cichorius Plates XIII, Scene 15.Ref: RBU2013.3719
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_15-20-rbu2016-web.jpg]850TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: SCENES XV-XX (15-20)
Scenes 15-20/XV-XX: From the left: a forest-clearing scene (XV); Fort construction scenes (XVI-XVII); Trajan is presented with a Dacian Prisoner (XVIII); bridge construction (XIX); Trajan supervises fort construction (XX). From the Column in situ. Composite image: RBU2016.6614-25.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_16_6957-web.jpg]30440TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XV (Scene 16)
Scene 16/XVI (detail): Trajan reviews the progress on the construction of a Roman fort. This is the only time Trajan is represented without his short trousers (bracae).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate XIV, scene 16.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6957
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_16_6958_web.jpg]29590TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XVI (Scene 16)
Scene 16/XVI: Detail of the footwear of Trajan and his entourage.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. XIV, scene 16.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6958
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_16_6956-detail-web.jpg]16600TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XVI (Scene 16): Mallets and chisels
Scene 16/XVI (detail): Two Roman soldiers work on the posts of a gate to a camp. Each is a mirror image of his companion. Both hold a mallet in the right hand. The heavy mortising chisel of the figure to the right is clearly visible. It appears that the soldier is cutting a mortise. An object is just visible in the left hand of the left figure. It, too, could be a chisel. Cf. Richmond 1935: 24.<br />From cast 40 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Compare: Cichorius Pl. XIV, scene 16; Coarelli Pl. 15.Ref: RBU2011.6956
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_17_6959-web.jpg]30040TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XVII (Scene 17)
Scene 17/XVII: Detail of a Roman legionary using a mallet and chisel in the construction of a planked palisade outside of a fort. A fine example of Roman tool use.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate XIV, scene 17.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6959
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_18_6960_web.jpg]33440TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV-XV/XVIII (Scene 18)
Scene 18/XVIII: Trajan's reception of a Dacian prisoner dominates the foreground of this scene. The background is filled with walls of a Roman camp, with log-ends in the tops of the sod walls; the entrance is guarded by two legionaries.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XIV-XV, scene 18.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6960
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_18_6961-web.jpg]29710TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XVIII (Scene 18, detail)
Scene 18/XVIII (detail): Roman soldiers bring a captive Dacian to the emperor.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate XV, scene 18.<br />Ref: RBU 2011.6961
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2062-web.jpg]22740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XVIII (Scene 18, detail)
Scene 18/XVIII (detail): Roman soldiers bring a captive Dacian to the emperor. Actual image in situ. Compare: Cichorius Plate XV, scene 18.Ref: RBU 2013.2062
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_18_6963-web.jpg]28950TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XVIII (Scene 18, detail)
Scene 18/XVIII: Trajan receives a Dacian prisoner (detail).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate XV, scene 18.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6963
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_18-20_6960-web.jpg]16470TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XVIII-XX (Scenes 18-20)
SCENES 18/XVIII-20/XX: Trajan receives a Dacian prisoner on the far left. In the background soldiers move timber while a soldier-carpenter puts the finishing touches on a gate (note the drill or chisel he holds and the bow or bow-saw that seems to be lying on the ground). In the middle of this photo (Scene 19) a bridge or bridges are being built using timber to make trestles. Scene 20: We see Trajan again, surveying the work that goes on around him. In the foreground legionaries excavate the ground in front of the walls. Richmond (1935) argues that turf for a sod wall is being cut by the men in the foreground. Others lift blocks to the walls, one carries a wall block on a frame that rests on his shoulders.Composite image from casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, EUR, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XV (Scenes 18-20) and Coarelli Pls. 16 and 17. Ref: RBU2011.6960composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_19-21_6964comp-web.jpg]29410TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV-XVI (Scenes 19-21)
Scenes 19/XIX-21/XXI (Composite view). Scene 19: A bridge-building scene (note the legionary crouching in the foreground holding a diagonal brace). The two tall trees at the top of the relief indicate an independent scene here. Scene 20: Fort construction. The fort is being constructed from blocks of sod. Scene 21: In the background we see tents within a fort with walls of sod (despite the improbably arched forms seen in the walls. Two sentries guard the encampment while riders depart over a wooden pile bridge.<br />Compare Cichorius Plates XV and XVI (Scenes 19-21). Casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6964composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_19-20-rbu2015_5469-web.jpg]7080TRAJAN'S COLUMN Scene XIX-XX (Scenes 19-20)
Scenes 19-20 (XIX-XX): From the Column in situ, west side: Trajan, standing frontally behind the unfinished wall of a Roman camp (center), supervises the construction of the fortifications. To the left a group of legionaries is occupied with the construction of a bridge. Immediately above the circular zone of damage several soldiers are busy excavating. Their shields rest on the ground; their helmets are supported by javelins.<br />Ref. RBU2015.5469.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_19_6965-web.jpg]28810TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XIX (Scene 19, detail)
Scene 19/XIX: A bridge-building scene: a legionary swings at a chisel(?) or a spike(?) with a mallet.<br />Compare Cichorius Plates XV (Scenes 19); Cast no. 44 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6965.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2057-19-web.jpg]15870TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XIX (Scene 19): Bridge construction
Scene 19/XIX: A bridge-building scene: a legionary swings at vertical post with a mallet. A kneeling soldier steadies the trestle of the bridge under construction.<br />From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2057.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2045-web.jpg]28570TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XX (Scene 20)
Scene 20/XX: The construction of a Camp. Trajan supervises the construction of a Roman fort made of blocks of turf in this scene photographed directly from the Column. Comparable to Cichorius Pl.XV, scene 20. Ref: RBU2013.2045
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_20_6966-web.jpg]28600TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XX (Scene 20, detail)
Scene 20/XX: Trajan supervises the construction of a fort. Trajan, unusually, is shown here virtually frontal (see comment in Brilliant 1984: 104). The tripartite composition with the emperor taller, centrally positioned, and flanked by officers who turn towards him, will be imitated frequently on the later Column of Marcus Aurelius.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XV (Scenes 20); Cast no. 45 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6966.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_20_6969-web.jpg]29080TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XX (Scene 20, detail)
Scene 20/XX: While legionaries construct their camp, shields and helmets are kept close by.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XV (Scenes 20); Cast no. 45 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6969.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3839-web.jpg]18660TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVI (Scene 21)
Scene 21/XXI: Roman tents stand within a sod-built fort. Sentries stand guard at the gate. In the foreground an auxiliary waters his horse while others depart over a pile bridge.<br />From the Column in situ.Compare Cichorius Plate XVI (Scene 21) and Coarelli Pls. 18-19Ref: RBU 2013:3839
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_21_6970-web.jpg]29190TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVI/XXI (Scene 21, detail)
Scene 21/XXI: Roman auxiliary cavalry get ready to mount in front of a Roman fort with sod-built walls.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVI (Scene 21); Cast no. 47 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6970.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_21_6971-web.jpg]29060TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVI/XXI (Scene 21, detail)
Scene 21/XXI: A Roman auxiliary cavalryman gives his horse a drink. Note the well-preserved legionary shield visible on the upper right, with a thunderbolt-and-wing motif (type "L" in Rossi 1971: 109).<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVI (Scene 21); Cast no. 48 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6971.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_21_6973-web.jpg]30530TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVI/XXI (Scene 21, detail)
Scene 21/XXI: Two sentries, one (left) a legionary, the other an auxiliary, guard a Roman fort.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVI (Scene 21); Cast no. 49 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6973.

The First Dacian War, Scenes XXII-XXV:

The compositions include marches and road-building in forests and the the first great battle scene. Scene XXII: Roman soldiers cluster at the edge of a forest; Scene XXIII: The forest is cleared by Roman troops; Scene XXIV: The first great battle, aided by Jupiter Tonans; Scene XXV: Trajan surveys a captured Dacian settlement.

scenes22-25

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_22_6975-web.jpg]94420TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVII/XXII (Scene 22)
Scene 22/XXII (Spiral 3): Assembly of soldiers in anticipation of battle, including standard-bearers on the far right. The setting is in a forest, as indicated by the line of trees at the top of the relief.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVII (Scene 22); Casts nos. 51-52 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6975composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_23-24_6977comp-web.jpg]81301TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVII/XXIII-XXIV (Scenes 23-24)
Scene 23/XXIII (Spiral 3): Soldiers clear a forest.Scene 24 (right): The beginning of the first major battle scene.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVII (Scene 23); Casts nos. 53-54 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6977comp. (Composite from two photographs).
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_24_6977comp24-web.jpg]83105TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVII-XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV (right): The first major battle scene. Note the presence of Jupiter Tonans in the upper right of the scene. His presence has given the name of scene 24 as the "Battle in the Thunderstorm."<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVII-XIX (Scene 24); Casts nos. 55-62 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6977comp24. (Composite from seven photographs).
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_5466-24-web.jpg]19880TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: In the center of the scene, just above the window (on the northeast side of the Column), Trajan is presented with the severed heads of his adversaries. The emperor and his officers are standing in front of a walled fort.<br />RBU2015.5466
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_5463-rbu2015-24-web.jpg]32742TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: The first great battle scene, right side, in situ. Jupiter joins the Roman side. His raised right arm is poised to throw a (missing) thunderbolt. RBU2015.5463
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6978-web.jpg]71820TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVIII/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the standard-bearers at the beginning (left side) of the scene.<br />Cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XVIII (Scene 24); cast no. 55 and Coarelli Pl. 22. Ref: RBU 2011.6978
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6981-web.jpg]68031TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVIII/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Trajan (left) with an advisor is presented with severed heads of Dacian warriors held by Roman auxiliaries.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XVIII, Scene 24 and Coarelli Pl. 22. Ref: RBU 2011.6981.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6983-web.jpg]66501TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVIII-XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: The first great battle. Roman auxiliary infantry and calvary fight the Dacians.From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XVIII-XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 23. Ref: RBU 2011.6983.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6984-web.jpg]62700TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVIII-XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the first great battle scene. A fallen Dacian warrior. Scene #24 represents the first images of dead or wounded Dacians.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XVIII-XIX and Coarelli Pl. 23. Ref: RBU 2011. 6984.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6985-web.jpg]62471TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the first great battle scene. Roman allies on the left, Dacians on the right. Note the archer at the top of the relief, and the auxiliary who holds the severed head of a Dacian in his mouth (center right).From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6985.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6985a-web.jpg]60250TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the first great battle scene. A Roman auxiliary holds the severed head of a Dacian in his mouth in the midst of battle.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 23. Ref: RBU2011.6985a.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6986-web.jpg]59861TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Segment of the first great battle scene. Jupiter joins the Roman side.A bearded Jupiter Tonans (the "Thunderer") appears in the sky to aid the Roman cause. His right hand presumably held a thuderbolt. His inclusion may refer to an actual thunderstorm that took place during the battle. Included in the scene is a brilliant representation of a defeated Dacian semi-reclined at ground level.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6986.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6988-web.jpg]57670TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of Jupiter Tonans, who appears in the sky to aid the Romans during their first great battle scene against the Dacians.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6988.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_2065-jupiter-web.jpg]53040TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24): Jupiter
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the first great battle scene. Jupiter joins the Roman side. His right hand presumably held a thuderbolt. Actual relief in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2013.2065.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6990-web.jpg]57090TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: The end of the first great battle. The Dacians carry off their dead and wounded comrades. The Dacian king, Decebalus, watches from the cover of a pine forest (upper right). This is the first appearance of the Dacian king on the Column (his last appearance is the suicide scene of #145).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6990.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_2065-decebalus-web.jpg]52630TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24): Decebalus
Scene 24/XXIV: The Dacian king, Decebalus, witnesses the defeat of his men from the cover of a pine forest (upper right). This is the first appearance of the Dacian king on the Column, and one of <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/?page_id=866">six scenes</a> that are thought to represent the Dacian king.<br />Actual relief in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2013.2065-D.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6990a-adj-web.jpg]55780TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the Head of Decebalus.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6990a.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_25-rbu2015_5467-web.jpg]16390TRAJAN'S COLUMN Scene XXV in situ
Scene 25/XXV: In the middle band of this image, Trajan inspects the occupation of a Dacian fort, while Dacians flee on the right side of the scene. Behind the emperor, in Scene 24/XXIV, Dacian soldiers attend to their wounded. The top of Scene 20/XX is visible at the bottom of the photo, and the bottom of Scene 33/XXXIII is visible at the top. <br />From the Column in situ. Ref. RBU2015.5467.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6993-web.jpg]56390TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: Trajan inspects the occupation of a Dacian fort, while Dacians flee towards the right. In the foreground, Roman soldiers set fire to wooden buildings built upon vertical piles. The walls of the fort are protected by pits filled with sharpened spikes (lilia). Along the fortification walls skulls have been placed on poles, perhaps the remains of Roman soldiers from earlier campaigns - the unsuccessful forays by Domitian? (Coarelli 2000: 69).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XX (Scene 25) and Coarelli Pl. 25. Ref: RBU 2011.6993.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_2046-25-web.jpg]54520TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: The burning of a Dacian town. Note the planked houses built on piles in the foreground (left), and the sharpened sticks in pits used as traps (lilia) against Roman attackers. Skulls on poles lining the fortifications allude to Dacian atrocities against the Romans. A Dacian "draco" standard flies prominently in the background. The actual relief in situ. Scene 26 begins to the right of the trees. Ref: RBU2013.2046
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6992-web.jpg]53720TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: Trajan and advisors inspect a captured Dacian fort. Not the the emperor (right) holds an inverted spear, a pose that suggests he has formally taken possession of Dacian territory (Coarelli 2000: 69). Coulston notes that the upper half of the spear was added as a metal attachment, and was perhaps double-pointed like that in Scene 27 (Coulston 1990: 294).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XX (Scene 25) and Coarelli Pl. 25. Ref: RBU 2011.6992.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_2061-vs-6992-s25-web.jpg]52180TRAJAN'S COLUMN: Scene 25/XXV comparison
Scene 25/XXV (detail): Trajan inspecting the enemies fortifications. On left: actual relief in situ. On right: Detail of cast no. 67 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana.The degree of weathering over the last 150 years appears negligible, with the possible exception of the face of the officer standing behind Trajan.<br />Ref Left: RBU2013.2061; Right: RBU2011.6992.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_trajans_column_1982-248-xxv-web.jpg]23810TRAJAN'S COLUMN: Scene XXV in situ
Scene 25/XXV (detail): Close view of Trajan. Taken from modern scaffolding. <br />RBU1982-248.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6994-web.jpg]53030TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: Detail of the burning of a Dacian wooden building constructed on piles. The planking of the exterior walls is clearly indicated, along with nail heads or the ends of dowels.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XX (Scene 25) and Coarelli Pl. 25. Ref: RBU 2011.6994.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6995-web.jpg]53690TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: Dacian soldiers flee from their captured fortress.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XX (Scene 25) and Coarelli Pl. 25. Ref: RBU 2011.6995.

The First Dacian War, Scenes XXVI-XXX:

Advance and regrouping in the first campaign. Scene XXVI: Roman soldiers ford a river; Scene XXVII: Second adlocutio scene; Scene XXVIII: First reception of a Dacian embassy by the emperor, who stands before a Roman camp; Scene XXIX: Roman troops attack settlements, burning buildings and slaughtering livestock; Scene XXX: Trajan pardons a Dacian woman while other captured women and children look on.

scenes26-30

Scene 26: River Crossing; Scene 27: adlocutio; Scene 28: Reception of a Dacian embassy; Scene 29:Roman Reconnaissance; Scene 30: Captured Dacian Women

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_26-27_rbu-3841-web.jpg]31160TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 26-27)
Scenes 26/XXVI and 27/XXVII (Spiral 4, SW): On the left (Scene 26), Roman soldiers cross a river. This episode is followed immediately by an adlocutio scene.<br />From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pls. XX and XXI, Scenes XXVI and XXVII.<br />RBU2013.3841
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_26_6997-web.jpg]36271TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXVI (Scene 26)
Scene 26/XXVI is a relatively compact scene that shows Roman legionaries crossing a river (visible in the foreground). Soldiers, including a horn-player and a standard-bearer with his bearskin hood, wade across the water. L. Rossi suggests that the troops shown may represent reinforcements sent to augment the army after the Roman losses at the Battle of Tapae (1971: 144). On the far right a soldier has piled his gear on a shield and holds it high over his head. An odd structure is visible in the background: A fort? A Sanctuary? (Coarelli 2000: 70).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XX, scene 26 and Coarelli Pl. 26. Ref: RBU2011.6997.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_26_6998-web.jpg]32732TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXVI (Scene 26)
Scene 26/XXVI (detail): A Roman soldier carries his kit on his shield during a river crossing. To his left, a standard-bearer.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XX, scene 26 and Coarelli Pl. 26. Ref: RBU2011.6998.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_27_6999-composite-web.jpg]31780TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVII (scene 27)
Scene 27/XXVII appears to include two different events. Trajan addresses his troops from a raised platform of masonry or brick. Immediately behind and in front of the soldiers he addresses we see a group (nine are shown) of Dacians(?) and their escorts, three of the former on horseback, approaching the emperor. The lead barbarian auxiliary escort on foot in the foreground, holding an oval shield, appeals to Trajan, as if asking for permission to speak. All the Dacians bringing up the rear are bareheaded, with long hair and beards, thus to be understood as Dacians of lower ranks, the <em>comati</em> (Rossi 1971: 144). Lepper and Frere suggest that the entire group comprises barbarian allies, in contrast to the scene no. 28 that follows, where Dacian identity appears more certain (1988: 76).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 27 and Coarelli Pls. 26-7. Ref: RBU2011.6999-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_img_2030-web.jpg]23530TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 27-28)
Scenes 27/XXVII-28/XXVIII: Following the river-crossing scene (26/XXVI) still visible on the left, Trajan addresses his troops from a raised tribunal. The emperor appears again immediately to the right of this scene in front of the walled fort with a tent and guards within (visible on the right). In both scenes Dacians are being received. The oars of a Roman ship from Scene 34/XXXIV are visible above. From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pls. 20/XX-20/XXI. RBU2013.20130.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_27_3771-web.jpg]29010TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVII (scene 27)
Scene 27/XXVII: Trajan addresses his troops. For a full description see the previous image in this gallery.<br />From the Column of Trajan. RBU2013.3771.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_27_7001-web.jpg]28400TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVII (scene 27)
Scene 27/XXVII: Detail of the standards in the <i>adlocutio<i/> scene.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 27 and Coarelli Pl. 26. Ref: RBU2011.7001.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_27_7003-web.jpg]27330TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVII (scene 27) - Detail
Scene 27/XXVII: Detail of a mounted Dacian(?) horseman who has approached the emperor Trajan who stands and addresses a group of Roman soldiers. The Dacian is shown as part of an embassy sent to confer with the Romans. These are evidently Dacians of lower rank, with their bare heads and long hair (called <i>comati<i/>; see Rossi 1971: 144). Note that Lepper and Frere (1988: 76) argue that the "Dacians" are in fact barbarian allies.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 27 and Coarelli Pls. 27. Ref: RBU2011.7003.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_28_xxi_xxviii_7004-composite-web.jpg]27650TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVIII (scene 28)
Scene 28/XXVIII: Outside the walls of a Roman fort, Trajan receives an embassy of Dacians. His left hand holds a sheathed sword. Two legionaries watch from inside the walls. Coarelli suggests that this is a continuation of the previous scene (2000: 72). As in Scene 27, the Dacians shown are members of the comati, well dressed with tasseled cloaks.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 28 and Coarelli Pls. 28. Ref: RBU2011.7004
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_28_xxi_xxviii_7005-web.jpg]26721TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVIII (scene 28)
Scene 28/XXVIII (detail): A closer view of Trajan, on the left and in front, receiving an embassy of Dacians. In the background: the walls of a Roma camp.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 27 and Coarelli Pls. 28. Ref: RBU2011.7005.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_29_xxii_xxix_7007-composite-web.jpg]28710TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXIX-XXX (scenes 29-30)
Scenes 29 and 30 are piled upon one another. From the left, Scene 29 begins with fighting and destruction: Auxiliary riders torch a building, others attack Dacians (lower left), some of whom flee with their children. Livestock are killed and left in piles (right foreground). In scene 30 Trajan gestures to a Dacian woman holding her child. Her isolation in the scene and her carriage have led to suggestions that she is a noble Dacian, perhaps even the sister of Decebalus (Lepper/Frere 1988: 76). In any case, Trajan is shown as compassionate, in contrast to the violence that swirls around this scene. Additional Dacian women crowd behind the single figure, guarded by Roman auxiliaries. A ship is in the background, perhaps to represent a scene of deportation of women and children from the field of battle (Coarelli 2000: 73) . . . or to take prime prisoners back to Rome. <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 29-30 and Coarelli Pl. 29. Ref: RBU2011.7007-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_img_3800-30-web.jpg]22780TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 29-30)
Scenes 29/XXIX and 30/XXX: Spiral 4: The scene focuses on the capture and subjugation of Dacians. Soldiers on horseback can be seen torching buildings (top, center). A few Dacian stragglers are dispatched by Soldiers (lower left). Captured women holding their children crowd the center of the scene, and slaughtered livestock are piled below. Trajan gestures to a departing Dacian "noble" lady. Who is she? The sister of Decebalus (cf. Lepper/Frere 1988:76-77)?<br />From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. 32, Coarelli Pl. 29; Lehmann-Hartleben Pl. 17. RBU2013.3800.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_30_xxii_xxx_7009-web.jpg]28050TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXX (scene 30): Detail
Scene 30/XXX: Surrounded by Roman guards, captured Dacian women hold their children and plea for mercy.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 30 and Coarelli Pl. 29. Ref: RBU2011.7009.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_30_xxii_xxx_7010-web.jpg]27291TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXX (scene 30): Detail
Scene 30/XXX: Detail of a Dacian woman and her child, who have been spared by Trajan and are being directed towards a ship in the background. The woman, "most aristocratic" of the prisoners (Coarelli 2000: 73), may even be the sister of the Dacian leader, Decebalus (Lepper/Frere 1988: 77).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 30 and Coarelli Pl. 29. Ref: RBU2011.7010.

The First Dacian War, Scenes XXXI-XXXVIII:

Dacians and their Sarmatian allies organize a counterattack against the Romans, perhaps during the winter spanning 101-102 CE.  Scene XXXI: Dacian horsemen struggle to cross a body of water; Scene XXXII: Dacians attack a Roman fort, a representation that includes an exceptional depiction of a battering ram.  Scene XXXIII: In response to Dacian attacks, Trajan departs from his winter quarters by ship with a walled town as a backdrop.  Scene XXXIV: Trajan and his troops travel by ship along the river; Scene XXXV: Trajan reaches shore and disembarks; Scene XXXVI: Trajan leads Roman infantry and allies; Scene XXXVII: Romans attack and defeat Sarmatian cataphracts; Scene XXXVIII: A battle by night (indicated by a personification of the goddess of night).

scenes31-38

Scene 31: Dacian Counterattack; Scene 32: Attack on a Roman fort; Scene 33: Riverside scene; Scene 34: Transport by ship; Scene 35: Trajan with the Danube fleet; Scene 36: Roman troops on the march; Scene 37: Calvary and Scouts defeat Sarmatians; Scene 38: Roman attack by night.

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_30_xxiii_xxxi_7012-composite31-33-web.jpg]30322TRAJAN'S COLUMN COMPOSITE IMAGE OF SCENES 31-33
Scene 31/XXXI: Dacian cavalry are shown swept away by the current of the Danube in this attack on Lower Moesia. Scene 32: Attack on a Roman Fort. Scene 33: Riverside harbor.<br />From casts now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XXIII-XXV, scenes 31-33 and Coarelli Pls. 30-33. Ref: RBU2011.7012-composite31-33.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiii_xxxi_7012-composite-web.jpg]26901TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII-XXIV/XXXI-XXXII (scenes 31-32)
Scene 31/XXXI: A counterattack by Dacians and their allies may have taken place in the winter of 101-102 CE. Dacian cavalry are shown swept away by the current of the Danube in this attack on Lower Moesia. Warriors on firmer ground pull some of their comrades from the freezing water. The top center of the scene is bordered by a Dacian dragon standard. To the right, Dacian allies: Sarmatians -- or Roxolani (Coarelli 2000: 74) on armored horses ("cataphractati"; see Rossi 1971: 148) move towards a Roman fort (Scene 32). <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scenes 31-32 and Coarelli Pls. 30-31. Ref: RBU2011.7012-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_5466-31-32-web.jpg]5531TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: XXXI-XXXII (Scenes 31-32)
Scenes 31-32/XXI-XXXII: To the left, Dacians struggle to ford a river (perhaps an an attack on Lower Moesia and a winter crossing (101-102 CE?) of the Danube). A draco standard flies high in the background. Armored horses ridden by Dacian allies charge off to the right of this scene. To the right (Scene XXXII) Dacians assault a Roman camp. <br />From the Column in situ. RBU2015.5466.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiii_xxxi_7013-web.jpg]25372TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXXI (scene 31): Detail
Scene 31/XXXI: Detail. A Dacian warrior kneels on a bank and pulls a fallen comrade from the freezing water. The scene emphasizes the quality of the Dacian fighting man and the dangers of waging an attack during the winter.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 31 and Coarelli Pl. 30. Ref: RBU2011.7013
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiii_xxxi_7015-web.jpg]23360TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXXI (scenes 31): Detail
Scene 31/XXXI: Detail. Two Dacian warriors stride towards the right; the one in front holds the dragon standard. Upper right: cataphract calvary (Roxolani; see next image?) charge off to attack the Roman fort in Scene 32.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 31 and Coarelli Pl. 30. Ref: RBU2011.7015
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiii_xxxi_7016-web.jpg]23140TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXXI (scene 31): Detail
Scene 31/XXXI: Detail: Calvary allied to the Dacians ("cataphract" calvary -- those that ride in armor on armored horses -- perhaps a tribe of the Roxolani?) charge off to attack the Roman fort in Scene 32. Primary sources that point to the identification of the the riders as Sarmatian Roxolani are in particular Tacitus <i>Historiae</i> 1.79 and Josephus <i>Bellum Judaicum</i> 7.4.3<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 31 and Coarelli Pl. 30. Ref: RBU2011.7016
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_5464-rbu2015-32-web.jpg]10640TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXII (scene 32)
Scene 32/XXXII: A Dacian assault against a Roman camp. Archers are visible on the left side of the arched gate and to the right and behind the group holding a battering ram. A tree creates a firm division between this scene and the one beginning on the far right.<br />A view of the relief in situ. RBU2015.5464
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiv_xxxii_7018-composite-web.jpg]23300TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIV/XXXII (scene 32): Composite Image
An expanded and flattened view of Scene 32/XXXII made from three separate photos. Note places of distortion, especially visible in the upper borders and in the lines of masonry on the walls of the Roman camp . . . these are actually rendered as perfectly parallel rows of ashlar masonry.Dacians, including several archers, attack a solidly-built Roman camp defended by auxiliary forces. The motifs on the shields have been studied to distinguish different cohorts (e.g., Rossi 1971: 148). The clean shaven attacker in the foreground center has been recognized since Cichorius published the images as a non-Dacian, perhaps a Roman deserter (also Coarelli 2000: 75; Lepper and Frere 1988: 80). A prominent battering ram is being carried in from the right . . . perhaps the Dacians are imitating Roman practice, or its presence is simply evidence of Dacian knowlege of Hellenistic military devices (Lepper and Frere 1988: 80). Here, too, we see evidence that metail attachments must have been part of the furnishings of the Column: spears in the hands of the defenders, weapons in those of the attackers. <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. <br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIV, scene 32 and Coarelli Pl. 31. Ref: RBU2011.7018-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiv_xxxii_7020-web.jpg]21740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIV/XXXII (scene 32)
Scene 32/XXXII: Detail of a battering ram employed by Dacian attackers against a Roman camp.From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. <br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIV, scene 32 and Coarelli Pl. 31. Ref: RBU2011.7020
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiv_xxxii_7021-web.jpg]20770TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIV/XXXII (scene 32): Detail
Scene 32/XXXII: Detail of Roman auxiliaries defending their camp.The careful attention to the motifs on the shields has suggested to scholars like Rossi that the intention was to recognize individual cohorts. Note the thunderbolt motif at the center and far right, perhaps an indication of the <i>cohortes civium Romanorum</i> (discussion in Rossi 1971: 148; Lepper/Frere 1988: 80). <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIV, scene 32 and Coarelli Pl. 31. Ref: RBU2011.7021
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33-34-rbu2015-img_5471-web.jpg]8360TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: XXXIII-XXXIV (scenes 33-34)
Scenes 33-34/XXXIII-XXXIV: Two naval themes are separated by a superimposed set of standing arches. To the left, an embarkation scene; the river voyage continues on the right side. The window visible on the right marks the southwest axis of the Column. Compare to Cichorius Plates XXV and XXVI. RBU2015.5461
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32-33_xxv-xxxiii-7022_composite-web.jpg]21280TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33)
Scene 33/XXXIII: A composite image from three photographs of a riverside harbor scene. Cichorius's Scene 33 could be divided into two parts. Both take place along the bank of a river, presumably the Danube itself, although at what exact harbor there has been much debate. On the left, Roman auxiliaries load bundles of goods on cargo ships. In the left background is a walled town with well built structures. An amphitheater, built of stone blocks, stands outside the city walls and acts as a divider for the action to the right. Here Trajan, dressed in his traveling clothes including his cloak (<i>paenula</i>) holds the attention of a group of standard-bearers, who carry the distinctive wreathed emblems of the praetorians (Lepper/Frere 1988: 81). The setting is once again dominated by buildings, including two triumphal or commemorative arches on the far right; the one in the foreground carries a statue of a chariot. Oarsmen man a warship ion the right side of the relief.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scenes 33 and Coarelli Pls. 32-33. RBU2011.7022-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_2066-33-web.jpg]16510TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33)
Scene 33/XXXIII: The harbor scene in situ. Trajan is visible facing his standard bearers on the far right.<br />RBU2013.2066
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_2049-web.jpg]15270TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ (scene 33)
Scene 33/XXXIII: A riverside harbor scene. Trajan faces his standard bearers. He and his companions wear their traveling cloaks (<i>paenulae</i>; cf. Lepper/Frere 1988: 81). A pair of high arches, the one in the foreground crowned with the statue of a chariot, forms the scene divider. From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. 25/XXV. RBU2013.2049
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32-33_xxv_xxxiii_7028-web.jpg]19540TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of Romans manning a warship (from the riverside scene on Trajan's Column).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pls. 32-33. Ref: RBU2011.7028
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32_xxv_xxxiii_7023-web.jpg]18830TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Auxiliaries load baggage on a ship in a riverside harbor scene.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. <br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scenes 33 and Coarelli Pl. 32. Ref: RBU2011.7023
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32_xxv_xxxiii_7026-web.jpg]18870TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail view of the praetorian standards, held by bearers in attendance upon Trajan (not visible).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pls. 32-33. Ref: RBU2011.7026
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxv_xxxiii_7030-web.jpg]18440TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of Trajan and his companions.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pl. 33.Ref: RBU2011.7030
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_9926a-web.jpg]18320TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail of Trajan
Scene 33/XXXIII: From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pl. 33.Ref: RBU2012.9926
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32_xxv_xxxiii_7025-web.jpg]18430TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of an amphitheater that stands outside a walled town, just visible to the left.The arcades of stone and an attic level are clearly depicted.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pl. 32. Ref: RBU2011.7025
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_trajans_column_view249-web.jpg]8190TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of a <i>quadriga</i> shown on the top of a triumphal arch (image taken from scaffolding).<br />RBU1982.249
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxv_xxxiv_7031-adj-web.jpg]18430TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of a <i>quadriga</i> shown on the top of a triumphal arch. From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2011.7031
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxv_xxxiv_7033-composite-web.jpg]19310TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV-XXXV (scenes 34-5)
Scenes 34/XXXIV-35/XXXV: On the left,Trajan sails with the Danube fleet, presumably to assist the province of lower Moesia (Coarelli 2000: 78). On the upper left: a rocky spit of land frames the river scene. Perhaps the intention is to depict the juncture of two rivers (the Save and the Danube(?); discussion in Lepper and Frere 1988: 83). Rossi (1971:48) indicates that the embarkation place is a port "of some importance." Note that the emperor himself steers the lower ship in the center of the scene. Right: Scene 35: Arrival of Trajan (who is seen on the far right, framed by the arched entrance to a fortress or a river town. The exact location of this place is speculative: the general location is lower Moesia. Oescus or Novae are "likely candidates" (Lepper and Frere 1988: 84; Cichorius preferred Drobeta). <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scenes 34-35 and Coarelli Pls. 33-35. <br />Ref: RBU2011.7033-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxvi_xxxiv_7034-web.jpg]18210TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34)
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a helmsman in leftmost ship of a Danube River scene.The man depicted wears a short, richly-curled beard and a short tunic, and holds his steering-oar.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 34 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2011.7034
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_3773-ppt.jpg]15840TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34)
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a helmsman in leftmost ship of a Danube River scene. Note the shelter for two fellow oarsmen, the shield resting on the roof of the shelter, and the kit bag hanging from the overhang. This image of the relief in situ on the Column illustrates how a raking sun can pick out figures in higher relief. RBU2013.3773
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxvi_xxxiv_7035-web.jpg]17450TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34)
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a two rowers in the leftmost ship of Scene 34.The man on the left is bearded; his companion on the right is clean shaven with a line of curls framing his face. The two are engaged in conversation. The sculptor did not continue the shaft of the oars up to their right hands, an evident error (cf. Lepper and Frere 1988: 83).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 34 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2011.7035
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_3842-web.jpg]16150TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34): Trajan at the helm
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a Trajan as helmsman in a Danube River scene. The tentlike structure that rises from the stern of the ship is clearly visible.Actual relief in situ.Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 34 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2013.3842
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxvi_xxxiv_7037-web.jpg]17300TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34): Trajan at the helm
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a Trajan managing a steering oar in a Danube River scene.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 34 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2011.7037
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_35_9935_xxxv-web.jpg]17200TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXV (scene 35): Trajan disembarks
Scene 35/XXXV: Detail of Trajan as he disembarks from his voyage on the Danube. The head of the emperor is framed by an arched entrance to a walled town.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 35 and Coarelli Pl. 35. Ref: RBU2012.9935
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_36-8_xxvii-viii_7041-43-composite-web.jpg]19262TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVII-VIII/XXXVI-VII (scenes 36-37)
Composite image of Scenes 36/XXXVI and 37/XXXVII of Trajan's Column. Scene 36: Trajan is shown on horseback on the left (cast #90). Cichorius indicated a scene break at the center tree, although it appears that Trajan is receiving a report in a wooded zone from mounted scouts before him (cast #91). In the following scene (37) the Roman cavalry falls upon men and their horses covered in scaled armor, identified as the cataphract Roxolan cavalry (Rossi 1971: 150); one of the fallen enemy dominates the foreground of the scene (cast #93).<br />From casts now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana.<br />Compare Cichorius, Pls. XXVII-VIII, scenes 36-7 and Coarelli Pls. 36-38. Ref. RBU 2011.7041-43-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_3802-adj-web.jpg]16151TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 36/XXXVI)
Scene 36/XXXVI: Trajan leads both cavalry and foot soldiers through a forest of mixed species. Two horsemen approach him from the right. We can see the top of Scene 30/XXX below this scene, where Trajan gestures towards the image of a woman and child.<br />From the Column in situ. Similar to Cichorius Pl. 27 and Coarelli Pl. 36. RBU2013.3802
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_35-6-xxvii-xxxvi_7042-web.jpg]18810TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVII/XXXVI (scene 36): detail
Scene 36/XXXVI: Auxiliaries accompany Trajan on a march. Among these are soldiers identified as German "allies" (symmachiarii); the center figure is carrying a club (from a Baltic tribe, the Aestii? Cf. Rossi 1971: 150). The oval shields carried by the bearded and trousered flanking figures are characteristic of the auxiliaries. <br />From a cast (#89) now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVII, scene 36 and Coarelli Pls. 35-6. Ref: RBU2011.7042
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_36-xxvii-xxxvi_7044-web.jpg]18400TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVII/XXXVI (scene 36): detail of Trajan
Scene 36/XXXVI: The emperor, mounted on his horse, leads a group of auxiliaries. Trajan's cloak, the paludamentum, billows behind him. Other cavalry are on foot, leading their horses. Lepper and Frere note the interesting pendants hanging from a neck band on the horse; they state that on the Column of Marcus Aurelius only the emperor's horse is shown with the crescent moon (the case is less clear-cut on the Column of Trajan).<br />From a cast (#90) now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVII, scene 36 and Coarelli Pl. 36. Ref: RBU2011.7044
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_38-xxviii-xxxvii_7047-web.jpg]18880TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVIII/XXXVII (scene 37): Cavalry attack
Scene 37/XXXVII: Auxiliary Calvary attack armored men and horses: the cataphract Roxolan cavalry.<br />From Casts (#93-4) now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVIII, scene 37 and Coarelli Pl. 38. Ref: RBU2011.7047
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_38-xxviii-xxxvii_7049-web.jpg]17640TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVIII/XXXVII (scene 37): Fallen calvaryman
Scene 37/XXXVII: Detail of a fallen Roxolan rider.<br />From Casts (#93-4) now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVIII, scene 37 and Coarelli Pl. 38. Ref: RBU2011.7049
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_38-xxviii-xxxvii_7050-web.jpg]17620TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVIII/XXXVII (scene 37): Armored Horse
Scene 37/XXXVII: Detail of an armored horse of a Roxolan rider.<br />From Cast (#94), now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVIII, scene 37 and Coarelli Pl. 38. Ref: RBU2011.7050
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_39_xxix_xxxviii_7052-composite-web.jpg]19532TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX/XXXVIII (scene 38): composite
Scene 38/XXXVIII: The episode is framed on the left and the right by trees. Roman auxiliaries attack Dacians during a night raid. The personification of Night, or "Nyx," is portrayed on the upper left (cast 95). The auxiliaries include club-wielding allies. The clean-shaven Dacians in the middle of cast 96 and the top of cast 98 may be Roman deserters (Coarelli 2000: 83). Wagons loaded with goods stolen from the Romans frame the top middle of the scene. Defeated Dacians fall in the foreground, including a Dacian who is trying to remove an arrow from his shoulder (cast 98, bottom). Note the similarity between the image of the fallen Dacian with one knee bent at the bottom of cast 97 and the final representation of Decebalus in the suicide of Scene #145.<br />Composite image from Casts (#95-98), now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIX, scene 38 and Coarelli Pls. 38-40. Ref: RBU2011.7052-60-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_39_xxix_xxxviii_7053-web.jpg]18330TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX/XXXVIII (scene 38): Nyx
Scene 38/XXXVIII: Detail of the personification of Night, "Nyx."The presence of the divinity suggests the Roman attack takes place by night on the Dacians in lower Moesia. The rocky landscape suggests the rising of the Moon - perhaps the female figure carries this meaning, too(?) The representation is paralleled by that of Jupiter in Scene 24. <br />From Cast (#95), now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIX, scene 38 and Coarelli Pl. 39. Ref: RBU2011.7053
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_7054-crop1-web.jpg]11590TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX/XXXVIII (scene 38): carts
Scene 38/XXXVIII: Battle at Night: detail. Wagons loaded with Dacian gear. Note the draco standard on the upper left and the amphora lying on its side.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIX, scene 38 and Coarelli Pl. 39. Ref: RBU2011.7054
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_39_xxix_xxxviii_7055-web.jpg]18410TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX/XXXVIII (scene 38): detail
Scene 38/XXXVIII: Battle at Night: detail. Barbarian allies fight the Dacians. From casts #96-7 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIX, scene 38 and Coarelli Pl. 39. Ref: RBU2011.7055

The First Dacian War, Scenes XXXIX-XLV:

Scene XXXIX: The sequence begins with a Dacian embassy of noblemen who are received by the emperor; meanwhile a group of civilians watches the construction of a Roman fort, perhaps located in Moesia; Scene XL: The second major battle scene includes the singular depiction of wounded Roman soldiers being treated in the field (thus sometimes called the “Battle of the Bandages;” Scene XLI:   The battle ends in a rout of the Dacians, who flee into the mountains.  Scene XLII: The third scene of adlocutio; Scene XLIII: Dacian prisoners are put under guard within a walled enclosure; XLIV: Roman soldiers are given rewards.  XLV: Nude and bound men are shown being tortured by women, the latter traditionally identified as Dacian women (war widows?) maltreating captured Roman soldiers.

scenes39-45

Scene 39: Reception of Dacian nobles; Scene 40: Second Major Battle Against the Dacians (Battle of the Bandages); Scene 41: Retreat of Dacians; Scene 42: Trajan addresses his troops after battle; Scene 43: Dacian Prisoners; Scene 44: Soldiers receive rewards from Trajan; Scene 45: Torture of Roman Prisoners

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_40-41_xxix-xxx_xxxviii-xxxix_7060-composite-web.jpg]28140TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX-XXXII/XXXIX-XL (scenes 39-40): composite
Scenes 39/XXXIX and 40/XL: In casts #99 and #100 the emperor stands on a platform and receives three Dacian nobles (pileati; note the characteristic "stocking" or Phrygian type hat). Below this group we see older men, women, and children descending towards the foreground, where Roman soldiers construct a fort from blocks of sod or stone. They are civilians: Perhaps of Moesia, now protected from Dacian raids? Cf. Lepper and Frere 1988:88.<br />Scene 40 depicts the second major battle scene on the Column: In casts 101-103 Roman auxiliaries bind prisoners and in the foreground the wounds of Roman legionaries are being tended in the field. Cast 104 shows a prisoner being brought to Trajan. Carroballistae are rolling up to the line of battle in the background. An extended battle takes place in casts 105-109. At the far right Roman cavalry pursues Dacians in retreat.<br />From casts #98-99 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XXIX-XXXII, scenes 39-40 and Coarelli Pls. 40-45. Ref: RBU2011.7060-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_40-41_xxix-xxx_xxxix_7061-adj-web.jpg]22120TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XXXIX (scene 39)
Scene 39/XXXIX: While a Roman fort is under construction (note the blocks in the background and the partial view of a Roman legionary on the right), a line of civilians, including children, approach. Their outstretched hands indicate either submission or thanks -- depending who they are: Dacians expressing submission? The inhabitants of Moesia who are expressing their gratitude for being saved from Dacian raids? Note the girl at center-right who seems to be "floating" in mid-air.<br />From cast 99 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 39 and Coarelli Pls. 40-41. Ref: RBU2011.7061
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_40-41_xxix-xxx_xxxix_7062-web.jpg]20461TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XXXIX (scene 39)
Scene 39/XXXIX: While a Roman fort is under construction (note the blocks in the background), a line of civilians, including children, approach. Here a bearded man carries a child on his shoulders while a woman looks back at the pair and cradles an infant. <br />From casts 98-99 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XXIX and XXX, scene 39 and Coarelli Pls. 40-41. Ref: RBU2011.7062
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_41_xxx_xxxix_7063-web.jpg]19050TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XXXIX (scene 39)
Scene 39/XXXIX: Trajan, with three officers, receives an embassy of Dacian nobles ("pileati"). The reception appears to be taking place in a partially-completed Roman fort.<br />From casts 99-100 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 39 and Coarelli Pl. 41. Ref: RBU2011.7063
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_41_xxx_xxxix_7064-web.jpg]17970TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XXXIX (scene 39)
Scene 39/XXXIX: Detail view of Trajan receiving an embassy of Dacian noblemen ("pileati"). Trajan. flanked by two officers, extends his right hand to the Dacians.<br />From casts 99-100 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 39 and Coarelli Pl. 41. Ref: RBU2011.7064
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_img_2034-web.jpg]13610TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 40)
Scene 40/XL: The central composition of this long battle scene: Roman auxiliaries are being treated for injuries on the left. Trajan receives a Dacian prisoner in the foreground, center, while carroballistae are wheeled into position in the background. The hulls of a pontoon bridge are visible above from Scene 48/XLVIII. Below, the top of another naval scene, nos. 34/XXXIV-35/XXXV. From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. 31/XXXI. RBU2013.2034.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_42-43_xxxi_xl_7072-web.jpg]17230TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40)
Scene 40/XL: Trajan receives a Dacian Prisoner. Behind the emperor, two cornicens stand ready.<br />From cast 104 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pls. 42-3. Ref: RBU2011.7072
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_trajans_column_1982-247-xl-web.jpg]7420RAJAN'S COLUMN XL (scene 40)
Scene 40/XL in situ: Closer view of the relief taken from scaffolding. Trajan receives a Dacian Prisoner.<br />RBU1982.247
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_42_xxx-xxxi_xl_7067-web.jpg]16962TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX-XXXI/XL (scene 40): Wounded Soldiers
Scene 40/XL: Roman soldiers help their wounded comrades. In the field of battle, a wounded Roman legionary and a wounded auxiliary receive first aid from two medici in auxiliary dress. The medicus helping the wounded auxiliary on the right is holding a roll of bandages in his hand (Rossi 1971: 152). Rossi interprets the scene to indicate that both legionaries and auxiliaries (the latter a cavalryman?) were wounded in the battle (id.). This is the only scene on the Column that depicts wounded Roman soldiers (cf. Settis 1988: 121).<br />From cast 103, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XXX-XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 42. Ref: RBU2011.7067
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_img_3752-40-detail-web.jpg]12980TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX-XXXI/XL (scene 40): detail of wounded Romans
Scene 40/XL (detail): Wounded Roman soldiers are bandaged with field dressings.<br />From the Column in situ.<br />RBU2013.3752
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_40-1000110-web.jpg]15550TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX-XXXI/XL (scene 40): Helping the Wounded
Scene 40/XL: Roman soldiers help a wounded comrade. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXX-XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 42. Ref: RBU2012.1000110.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_42_xxx_xl_7068-web.jpg]16610TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XL (scene 40)
Scene 40/XL: Roman auxiliaries are shown binding Dacian captives. The latter are shown seated or kneeling on the ground with their arms tied behind them. At the top left a Dacian is pushed along by a soldier who grasps his hair.<br />From cast 101 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 42. Ref: RBU2011.7068
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_42_xxx_xl_7069-web.jpg]15260TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XL (scene 40): detail
Scene 40/XL: Roman auxiliaries push a Dacian captive forward.<br />From cast 101, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 42. Ref: RBU2011.7069
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_43_xxxi_xl_7074-web.jpg]15260TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40): Detail of Trajan
Scene 40/XL: Trajan, facing right, receives a Dacian Prisoner. Behind the emperor stands an officer who may be the legate Lucinius Sura (Coarelli 2000: 87). Further back, two cornicens and a standard bearer stand ready.<br />From cast 104 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 43. Ref: RBU2011.7074
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_img_3751-scene40-web.jpg]15580TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40)
Scene 40/XL: Actual relief as visible on the Column. Trajan receives a Dacian captive. In the background, a carroballista drawn by a pair of mules is moved into position. The horns below (tubae) are ready to signal for action.<br />From the Column of Trajan in Rome. RBU 2013.3751<br />Rossi (1971: 152).
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_43_xxxi_xl_7075-web.jpg]14990TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40): carroballista
Scene 40/XL: The battle scene includes a depiction of cart-borne artillery (a carroballista), manned by a Roman legionary.<br />From cast 104 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 43. Ref: RBU2011.7075
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_43_xxxi_xl_7076-web.jpg]14630TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40): standard bearer
Scene 40:/XL A Roman standard bearer is visible behind the cornicens and the emperor.<br />From cast 104 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 43. Ref: RBU2011.7076
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_43-44_xxxi_xl_7073-web.jpg]14861TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40): Dacian collapse
Scene 40/XL: at the climax of the battle Roman soldiers surround the Dacians, whose line collapses and who are forced to begin withdrawal.<br />From casts 105-6 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pls. 43-44. Ref: RBU2011.7073.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_44-45_xxxii_xl_7078-web.jpg]14890TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXII/XL (scene 40): Cavalry
Scene 40/XL: Roman triumph. While the Roman cavalry rides over their Dacian opponents in the upper half of the frieze, Roman soldiers finish off the enemy in the foreground.<br />From casts 108-109 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXII, scene 40 and Coarelli Pls. 44-5. Ref: RBU2011.7078.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_45_xxxii_xl-xli_7079-web.jpg]14970TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXII/XLI (scene 41): Retreat
Scene 41/XLI: After the major battle depicted in Scene 40, the Dacians flee. The scene is rendered briefly; the visual message is clear. Note the heap of collapsed Dacians in the foreground of cast 110. <br />From cast 110 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXII, scene 41 and Coarelli Pl. 45. Ref: RBU2011.7079.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_45_xxxii_xli_7080-web.jpg]14470TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXII/XLI (scene 41): Detail
Scene 41/XLI: Detail of collapsed Dacians in the foreground of cast 110. <br />From cast 110 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXII, scene 41 and Coarelli Pl. 45. Ref: RBU2011.7080.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_46_xxxiii_xlii_7081-web.jpg]15080TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII/XLII (scene 42)
Scene 42/XLII: Composite image from two photographs. Trajan addresses his victorious troops (see images from the previous episodes, especially scene 40). In the foreground stand the auxiliaries, some of their backs are towards us, enhancing the viewer's perspective of "being there." The cavalry stands to the left. Praetorian and legionary standards form a dramatic backdrop on the right side.<br />From casts 111-113, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIII, scene 42 and Coarelli Pl. 46. Ref: RBU2011.7081-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_46_xxxiii_xlii_7083-adj-web.jpg]14260TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII/XLII (scene 42): detail of adlocutio
Scene 42/XLII: Detail of Trajan addressing his victorious troops.At the center: eagle standards.<br />From cast 112, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIII, scene 42 and Coarelli Pl. 46. Ref: RBU2011.7083
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_46_xxxiii_xlii_7084-adj-web.jpg]13991TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII/XLII (scene 42): standard-bearers
Scene 42/XLII: Detail of standard-bearers listening to Trajan.<br />From cast 112, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIII, scene 42 and Coarelli Pl. 46. Ref: RBU2011.7084
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_47_xxxiii_xliii_7085-composite-web.jpg]15320TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII-XXXIV/XLIII-XLV (scenes 43-45): composite
Composite image of scenes 43-45.Scene 43: Dacian prisoners are shown inside a Roman fort built of turf blocks, guarded by an auxiliary. The single tent represents housing for the soldiers in the encampment.Scene 44: Trajan rewards his men. An auxiliary kisses Trajan's hand while another behind him goes off with his reward. In the foreground of cast 115, two soldiers embrace.Scene 45: The torture of Roman(?) prisoners. Nude men are being tortured by women. Are these Roman soldiers being tortured by Dacian widows? Or Dacians being tortured by widows of the Moesian raid? (cf. Gauer 1977: 17).<br />From casts #114-117 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXIII-XXXIV, scenes 43-45 and Coarelli Pls. 47-48. Ref: RBU2011.7085-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_47_xxxiii_xliii_7085-web.jpg]14990TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII/XLIII (scene 43): Dacian Prisoners
Scene 43/XLIII: Dacian Prisoners are held in a Roman fort, guarded by an auxiliary. Several appear to be of high rank (pilleati); "they represent the fruit of victory" (Rossi 1971: 154). The building to the left with the barred window may represent the prison (Coarelli 2000: 91; contrast Richmond 1935: 29, who sees this as an example of window glass).<br />From cast 114, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. <br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIII, scene 43 and Coarelli Pl. 47. Ref: RBU2011.7085
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_44-45-rbu2015_5468-web.jpg]6990TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV-XLV (scenes 44-45): Reward and Torture
Scenes 44-45/XLIV-XLV: On the northwest side of the Column, Trajan, seated, rewards his men for service. Here one soldier bends to kiss the emperor's right hand. Another pair of soldiers embrace at the lower left. The next Scene, 45/XLV, is presented in stark contrast to the preceding one: men stripped of their clothes are suffering torture at the hands of women. This scene has been traditionally interpreted as the torture of Roman prisoners.<br />From the Column in situ. Ref. RBU2015.5468.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_48_xxxiv_xliii_7088-web.jpg]15700TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV/XLIV (scene 44): Trajan rewards a loyal soldier
Scene 44/XLIV: A soldier kisses his emperor's hand in gratitude for his reward. Trajan himself is seated on his camp chair, the sella castrensis (Rossi 1971: 154).<br />From cast 116, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIV, scene 44 and Coarelli Pl. 48. Ref: RBU2011.7088
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_48_xxxiv_xliv_7093-web.jpg]17120TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV/XLIV (scene 44): Embrace of Soldiers
Scene 44/XLIV: Two Roman auxiliaries embrace after battle -- and presumably they have just received their rewards from the emperor. Rossi speculates that these may have included the gift of citizenship (1971: 156).<br />From cast 115, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIV, scene 44 and Coarelli Pl. 48. Ref: RBU2011.7093
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_48_xxxiv_xliv_7091-web.jpg]17710TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV/XLV (scene 45) : Detail of Torture Scene
Scene 45/XLV: a bound prisoner is tortured with a torch brandished by a female.<br />From cast 117, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIV, scene 45 and Coarelli Pl. 48. Ref: RBU2011.7091
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_48_xxxiv_xlv_7090-web.jpg]19180TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV/XLV (scene 45): Torture
Scene 45/XLV: torture of prisoners. Dacian(?) women torture Roman(?) prisoners.<br />From cast 117, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIV, scene 45 and Coarelli Pl. 48. Ref: RBU2011.7090

The First Dacian War, Scenes XLVI-LXXIII:

Scene XLVI: Trajan presides over an embarkation; Scene XLVII: Troops reach a shoreline and disembark; Scene XLVIII: Legions cross a river using a pontoon bridge; XLIX: Three columns of Roman soldiers and their support march; L: Trajan greets arriving soldiers; LI: The arrival of Trajan at a Roman fort; LII: Amid a scene of clearing timber, Trajan receives a Dacian embassy; LIII: Second scene of the suovetaurilia sacrifice; LIV: Adlocutio scene; LV: The Roman infantry ascends steep terrain; LVI: Forest clearing for a road; LVII: Attack and torching of Dacian buildings; LVIII: Trajan on horseback rides over a bridge; LIX: Dacians retreat; LX: Roman fort construction; LXI: Trajan and his officers receive a kneeling Dacian; LXII: Forts and mustering in mountainous terrain; LXIII: Roman forces shown in the mountains; LXIV: Allied Numidian cavalry ride against Dacian forces; LXV: A Roman fort under construction in hilly terrain; LXVI: Trajan receives an envoy, heavy artillery construction and battle; LXVII: Dacians, under pressure, fell trees for their defense; LXVIII: Against a backdrop of Roman camp construction, Trajan receives a prisoner; LXIX: Roman legionaries clear timber; LXX: Roman allied forces move against the Dacians; LXXI: A singular testudo formation assaults a Dacian fortress; LXXII: Amidst the last major battle of the first Dacian War, Trajan is presented with severed heads of the enemy;  LXXIII: While construction takes place in the foreground, Trajan addresses his soldiers (adlocutio).

Scenes 46-73

Casts 118-190: Trajan's Second Advance (first Dacian War).

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_49_xxxiv-xxxv_xlvi_7094-composite-web.jpg]27770TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV-XXXV/XLVI-XLVIII (scenes 46-48)
Scenes 46/XLVI-48/XLVIII:<br />Scene 46: Trajan is shown in traveling clothes, leaving a city gate; at the moment of his departure he is met by Dacian petitioners who are with Roman guards. <br />Scene 47: There may be no actual division between this scene and the preceding one. In the foreground boats are being loaded for a river voyage or crossing. The two standards may indicate two legions are being readied (Frere/Lepper 1988: 95).<br />Scene 48: Roman soldiers cross a pontoon bridge (casts 121-122), led by an officer.<br />From casts 118-122, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXIV-XXXV, scenes 46-48 and Coarelli Pls. 49-50. RBU2011.7094-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_49_xxxiv-xxxv_xlvi_7096-web.jpg]23290TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV-XXXV/XLVI (scene 46)
Scene 46/XLVI: Trajan, about to embark by water (and hence the traveling garments) is petitioned by "barbarians" (Dacians?) who are escorted by Roman soldiers. The range of hand gestures in the middle of the episode is notable.<br />From casts 118-119, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXIV-XXXV, scene 46 and Coarelli Pl. 49. RBU2011.7096.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_49_xxxv_xlvii_7095-web.jpg]20890TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV/XLVII (scene 47)
Scene 47/XLVII: The vertical line created by a pair of Roman standards signalled to Cichorius a break between Scenes 46 and 47; the two are linked: here Romans prepare for movement by water over the Danube, bringing bales of gear and supplies to waiting ships.<br />From cast 120, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 47 and Coarelli Pl. 49. RBU2011.7095.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxv_xlviii_7097-web.jpg]18440TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV-XXXV/XLVI (scene 46)
Scene 46/XLVI: The prow of a Roman warship. The ramming beak (rostrum) is clearly visible. The ship awaits the arrival of the emperor. Note the decorative detail of a putto riding on a dolphin.<br />From cast 120, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 46 and Coarelli Pl. 50. RBU2011.7097.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_48-56-rbu2015_5477-web.jpg]9620TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: XLVIII and LVI (Scenes 48 and 56)
Scenes 48/XLVIII (bottom) and 56/LVI: In the middle of the lower frieze, Roman soldiers cross a river on a pontoon bridge. Above, Dacian heads are impaled upon stakes while Romans clear trees and excavate. Horsemen head out for an assault (above the damaged area) and other troops set fire to Dacian buildings.<br />RBU2015.5477
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxv_xlviii_7099-web.jpg]17610TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV/XLVIII (scene 48): Pontoon Bridge
Scene 48/XLVIII: Standard-bearers and an officer lead a line of troops across a pontoon bridge.<br />From casts 121-122, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 48 and Coarelli Pl. 50. RBU2011.7099.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3754-48-web.jpg]16560TRAJAN'S COLUMN (scene 48): Pontoon Bridge
Scene 48/XLVIII: An officer, flanked by auxiliaries and against a backdrop of standards, leads Roman soldiers across a pontoon bridge. Note how the standards break into the zone of the spiral above. The relief as seen in situ.<br />RBU2013.3754.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxv_xlviii_7100-web.jpg]15540TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV/XLVIII (scene 48): standard-bearers
Scene 48/XLVIII: Standard-bearers lead a line of troops across a pontoon bridge.<br />From casts 121-122, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 48 and Coarelli Pl. 50. RBU2011.7100.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxv_xlviii_7101-web.jpg]15850TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV/XLVIII (scene 48): march
Scene 48/XLVIII: An officer, flanked by auxiliaries and against a backdrop of standards, leads Roman soldiers across a pontoon bridge. The legion is "clearly identifiable as the I Minervia from the image of a ram, held by the imaginifer who leads the formation" (Rossi 1971: 156). Cf. Settis 1988: 330 ("I Minervia pia fidelis, proveniente dalla Germania").<br />From cast 122, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 48 and Coarelli Pl. 50. RBU2011.7101.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_51_xxxvi_xlix_7102-7-composite-web.jpg]16120TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI-VII/XLIX-LI (scenes 49-51): composite
Scenes 49/XLIX-51/LI:<br />Scene 49: Three rows of soldiers advance. Foreground: cavalry with their horses. Middle: the infantry. Top: mules and oxen haul baggage. A circular structure (tower?) borders the scene on the right (cast 125).<br />Scene 50: On hilly terrain Trajan receives a group of legionaries who ascend a wooden walkway (cast 126). In the background a hill fort is represented. A twisting mountain path also serves as the right border to this scene.<br />Scene 51: Trajan, with his retinue of reinforcement troops, meets another group of auxiliaries and legionaries. A fortified camp fills the background.<br />From casts 123-129, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXVI-VII, scenes 49-51 and Coarelli Pls. 51-53. RBU2011.7102-7-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxvi_xlix_7102-web.jpg]15060TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV-VI/XLIX (scene 49): cavalry
Scene 49/XLIX: Detail of a auxiliary cavalryman leading his horse.<br />From cast 123, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXV-VI, scene 49 and Coarelli Pls. 50-51. RBU2011.7102
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_51_xxxvi_xlix_7103-web.jpg]14771TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/XLIX (scene 49): Roman march
Scene 49/XLIX: Romans on the march represented in three tiers: Top: baggage carts drawn by mules and oxen; middle: Roman infantry. Bottom: calvarymen walking their horses.<br />From casts 123-124, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 49 and Coarelli Pl. 51. RBU2011.7103
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_52_xxxvi_l_7106-web.jpg]14350TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/XLIX (scene 49): pack mules
Scene 49/XLIX: Mules carry the baggage for Romans on the march.<br />From casts 125-126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 49 and Coarelli Pl. 52. RBU2011.7106
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3816-wp-web.jpg]13110TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50)
Scene 50/L: Top spiral: Trajan receives a messenger above a scene of battle (corresponding to Cichorius Scenes 49-50). Lower spiral: Roman soldiers ride over fallen Dacians (corresponding to Cichorius secenes 40-41) .<br />In the sky: a blurred moon on a clear November day.<br />In situ, Trajan's Column, Rome RBU2013.3816
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_52_xxxvi_xlix_7104-web.jpg]14340TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan and Soldiers
Scene 50/L: Trajan receives a group of legionaries who reach him by means of a wooden walkway.<br />From cast 126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 50 and Coarelli Pl. 52. RBU2011.7104
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3805-web.jpg]12830TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan receives Soldiers
Scene 50/L: On hilly terrain Trajan receives a group of legionaries who ascend a wooden walkway. In the background a hill fort is visible. A zig-zag mountain path also serves as the right border to this scene. Photo from the Column in situ. Compare to cast 26 in Cichorius Pl. XXXVI. RBU2013.3805
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_scene-50-rbu2012_9954-50-web.jpg]2780TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan and Soldiers
Scene 50/L: Trajan receives a group of legionaries who reach him by means of a wooden walkway.From cast 126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 50 and Coarelli Pl. 52. <br />RBU2012.9954
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_52_xxxvi_xlix_7105-web.jpg]13320TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan
Scene 50/L: Trajan, flanked by two officers, greets a group of approaching legionaries.<br />From cast 126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 50 and Coarelli Pl. 52. RBU2011.7105
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_scene-50-rbu2012_9956-web.jpg]2520TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan and Officers (detail)
Scene 50/L: Trajan receives a group of legionaries; here three views of the emperor with his officers.From cast 126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 50 and Coarelli Pl. 52. RBU2012.9956-58
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7107-det-web.jpg]4890TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): A Fortified Roman Camp
Scene 51/LI: A strongly fortified Roman camp with permanent structures within forms the backdrop to this scene. Watchtowers rise from a wall rendered as if built of cut stone. The main gate, however, is not vaulted but shown with a heavy lintel.<br />From casts 127-128, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7107-det
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_53_xxxvii_li_7107-web.jpg]13410TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): Trajan and Auxiliaries
Scene 51/LI: Trajan, with his retinue of reinforcement troops behind him, meets a group of auxiliaries and legionaries. He wears a cuirass and splendid fringed paludamentum. A fortified camp fills the background.<br />From casts 127-128, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7107.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_53_xxxvii_li_7109-web.jpg]12950TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): Trajan and Auxiliaries (Detail)
Scene 51/LI: Trajan greets a group of auxiliaries A fortified camp forms the backdrop.<br />From cast 128, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7109
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_53_xxxvii_li_7110-web.jpg]13020TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): Roman Standards (detail)
Scene 51/LI: Roman standards in front of a fortified camp (detail). The legionary eagle is shown perched on its pedestal on the right.<br />From cast 128, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7110
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_53_xxxvii_li_7111-web.jpg]13000TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): Standards
Scene 51: Military standards (praetorian signa; cf. Rossi 1971: 106) carried in the group that accompanies the emperor Trajan.<br />From cast 127, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7111
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_54_xxxvii_lii_7112-web.jpg]12950TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII-VIII/LII (scene 52): Dacian embassy
Scene 52/LI: In the midst of a forestry and camp-building scene, Trajan receives Dacian ambassadors, whose fringed garments draw focus to their presence before the emperor. These are Dacian <i>Comati</i> "proposing terms that the emperor presumably is rejecting" (Lepper and Frere 1988: 100). In the foreground legionaries excavate trenches, removing soil in woven baskets.<br />From casts 130-31, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXVII-VIII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 54. RBU2011.7112
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7114-web.jpg]13934TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVIII/LIII (scene 53): Suovetaurilia
Scene 53/LIII: The second scene of Suovetaurilia on the Column of Trajan. The emperor, velate, performs the initial sacrifice as the sacrificial animals are led around the walls of the camp. Either this is a different camp from that depicted in Scene 51 (Frere and Lepper 1988: 100), or it is the camp shown in the previous scene, now finished (Coarelli 2000: 99).<br />From casts 132-34, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVIII, scene 53 and Coarelli Pl. 55. RBU2011.7114
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7115-web.jpg]13022TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVIII/LIII (scene 53): Sacrifice (detail)
Scene 53/LIII (Suovetaurilia): The emperor, velate, performs the sacrifice. <br />From casts 132-34, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVIII, scene 53 and Coarelli Pl. 55. RBU2011.7115
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7119-web.jpg]12670TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVIII/LIII (scene 53): Standard-bearers
Scene 53/LIII (Suovetaurilia): Standard-bearers wearing the bearskin hood (pellis) watch Trajan preside over the suovetaurilia. From casts 133-34, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVIII, scene 53 and Coarelli Pl. 55. RBU2011.7119
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7120-web.jpg]13430TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIX/LIV (scene 54): Adlocutio
Scene 54/LIV: Following the scene of sacrifice in Scene 53, Trajan addresses his troops (adlocutio). In the foreground, auxiliaries, then a group of legionaries in the middle and the standard-bearers forming the background. Lepper-Frere suggest that the compact circular grouping of the scene may be influenced "by the coin types showing such imperial addresses" (1988: 100). From casts 135-36, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIX, scene 54 and Coarelli Pl. 56. RBU2011.7120.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7121-web.jpg]12730TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIX/LIV (scene 54): Adlocutio, detail
Scene 54/LIV: Detail: Trajan addresses his troops (adlocutio). From cast 135, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIX, scene 54 and Coarelli Pl. 56. RBU2011.7121.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7122-web.jpg]15040TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIX-XL/LV-LVI (scenes 55-6): Romans on the March
Scenes 55/LV and 56/LVI. The large tree on the right border of cast 137 was regarded by Cichorius as a scene division, considered "plausible" by Lepper and Frere (1988: 101). Scene 55: Roman soldiers begin their advance up a hill.Scene 56: In rough terrain, Roman legionaries clear their way through a forest. Note the roadbed visible under the feet of the soldiers in cast 138. The Dacian heads on the far right of the scene may indicate a captured Dacian fort seen in the background of casts 139 and 140.From casts 137-140, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXIX-XL, scenes 55-56 and Coarelli Pls. 57-58. RBU2011.7122-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7123-curle-web.jpg]13840TRAJAN'S COLUMN XL/LVI (scene 56): Roman axemen
Scene 56/LVI: Roman soldiers fell trees using axes. On the right are five examples of actual axes found at the Roman Fort at Newstead in 1911 published by Curle (A Roman Frontier Post and Its People, Glasgow).<br />RBU2011.7123-Curle
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7125-web.jpg]13350TRAJAN'S COLUMN XL/LVI (scene 56): Excavation
Scene 56/LVI: Legionaries at work clearing a forest and building a road. Here a soldier dumps a load of rubble from a wicker basket. His shield and helmet are propped up close by. <br />From cast 140, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XL, scene 56 and Coarelli Pl. 58. RBU2011.7125.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7126-web.jpg]13381TRAJAN'S COLUMN XL-XL/LVII-LIX (scenes 57-59)
Scenes 57/LVII, 58/LVIII, and 59/LIX. <br />Scene 57: Torching of Dacian buildings. A house or watch tower on piles figures prominently at the top of casts 141-142.<br />Scene 58: Trajan crosses a pile bridge with equestrian escorts. The location of the bridge has been postulated as at Robeshti (Cichorius) or the nearby "Pons Vetus" near Cineni (cf. discussion in Lepper/Frere 1988: 102).<br />Scene 59: Dacians watch their buildings being torched.<br />From casts 141-144, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XL-XLI, scenes 57-59 and Coarelli Pls. 58-60. RBU2011.7126-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3789-web.jpg]11210TRAJAN'S COLUMN XL-XL/LVIII-LIX (scenes 58-59)
On the lower of two spirals, scenes 58/LVIII and 59/LIX: Trajan's bridge crossing is just visible to the left. In Scene 59 Roman soldiers torch the planked buildings of the Dacians and the latter watch helplessly. A draco standard flies in the background. Image from the Column in situ. RBU2013.3789.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_60_xli_lix_7129-web.jpg]11010TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLI/LIX (scene 59): Romans torch Dacian buildings
Scene 59/LIX: Dacians appear to look on as Roman soldiers set fire to planked (wooden) buildings.<br />From cast 144, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLI, scene 59 and Coarelli Pl. 60. RBU2011.7129.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7130-composite-web.jpg]11240TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LX-LXI (scenes 60-61): Fort Construction and Embassy
Scenes 60/LX and 61/LXI: Left, Roman legionaries construct a camp as fellow soldiers in the hills beyond (top left) keep guard. On the right (61), within a similar, now-completed fort, Trajan, with four officers (two on the left are wearing helmets) receives a high-born Dacian who has placed his shield on the ground in front of him. From casts 145-148, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scenes 60-61 and Coarelli Pls. 61-2. RBU2011.7130-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7131-web.jpg]10680TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LX (Scene 60)
Scene 60/LX: Detail of Roman legionaries constructing a Roman camp.<br />From cast 146, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scene 60 and Coarelli Pl. 61. RBU2011.7131.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7136-web.jpg]10700TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LXI (scene 61): Reception of a Dacian ambassador
Scene 61/LXI: Trajan, surrounded by four senior officers (the two behind him wear helmets) receives a Dacian nobleman outside the walls of a Roman fort. Coarelli suggests that the two bare-headed officers are meant to represent Licinius Sura and the Praetorian Prefect Claudius Livianus (2000: 106). <br />From cast 147, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scene 61 and Coarelli Pl. 62. RBU2011.7136.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7135-web.jpg]10380TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LXI (scene 61): Trajan receives an ambassador
Scene 61/LXI: Close-up detail of Trajan (center, right profile), surrounded by four senior officers (the two behind him wear helmets). It has been proposed that he two bare-headed officers are meant to represent Licinius Sura and the Praetorian Prefect Claudius Livianus (Coarelli 2000: 106).<br />From cast 147, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scene 61 and Coarelli Pl. 62. RBU2011.7135.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7137-web.jpg]10450TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LXI (scene 61): standard-bearers
Scene 61/LXI: Detail of the trumpeters and standard-bearers who witness a Dacian ambassador who presents himself to Trajan. In the foreground stands a legate. <br />From cast 148, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scene 61 and Coarelli Pl. 62. RBU2011.7137.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7138-43-composite-web.jpg]11300TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIII-XLIV/LXII-LXIII (scenes 62-63): Montain Warfare
Scenes 62/LXII and 63/LXIII. Draft animals (oxen and mules) appear on the left (cast 149) towards a fortification that protects a large tent - headquarters? (casts 150-151). Legionaries are stationed outside of the fortress walls. More legionaries and auxiliaries head into mountainous terrain (casts 152-154). Windowless cylindrical buildings with conical roofs and perhaps skylights create the background: Dacian tombs? Temples? cf. Lepper/Frere 1988: 104. Within this mountain setting the emperor Trajan consults his officers (cast 155).<br />From casts 149-156, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XLIII-XLIV, scenes 62-63 and Coarelli Pls. 64-66. RBU2011.7138-43-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7138-web.jpg]10900TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIII/LXII (scene 62): draft animals
Scene 62/LXII: Detail of oxen and mules carrying supplies. Note the pair at the seam of the drums at the top of the image; their legs were never carved- or they are meant to be seen from behind a rocky outcrop that is perfectly horizontal(!). <br />From cast 149, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIII, scene 62 and Coarelli Pl. 64. RBU2011.7138.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7139-web.jpg]10600TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIII/LXII (scene 62): Roman soldiers
Scene 62/LXII: Detail of three Roman soldiers. The legionary on the left guards the entrance to a Roman fort. Two auxiliaries stand to the right. <br />From casts 151-152, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIII, scene 62 and Coarelli Pl. 64. RBU2011.7139.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7140-web.jpg]10700TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIII/LXII (scene 62): Dacian? structure
Scene 62/LXII: Detail of cylindrical structure. The building has no windows and is apparently illuminated by skylights built into the roof. Possibly a Dacian temple or a tomb? <br />From casts 151-152, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIII, scene 62 and Coarelli Pl. 64. RBU2011.7140.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7143-composite-web.jpg]11390TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV-XLV/LXIV (scene 64): Cavalry Attack
Scene 64/LXIV: As Trajan confers with an officer (left, cast 155), a charging cavalry of Moorish riders in a mountain setting falls upon a Dacian band. The episode has been connected with a literary passage in Dio (67.8.3). The rocky landscape is indicated by a series of ridges. The Dacian standard, the draco, dominates the sky at the top of cast 159. As the scene concludes on the right (casts 159-160), the Dacians take refuge in a forest. A tree on cast 160 separates this long scene from the next.<br />From casts 155-161, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIV-XLV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pls. 67-69. RBU2011.7143-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7144-web.jpg]10530TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV/LXIV (scene 64): Moorish cavalry
Scene 64/LXIV: Detail cavalry "unanimously (so far) identified with the Moorish irregulars" (Lepper/Frere 1988: 105). They ride with no saddles and have long curly hair.<br />From cast 156, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pl. 67. RBU2011.7144.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7145-web.jpg]10470TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV/LXIV (scene 64): Moorish cavalry
Scene 64/LXIV: Detail of two Moorish riders. From casts 155-156, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pl. 67. RBU2011.7145.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7146-web.jpg]10390TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV/LXIV (scene 64): Moor vs. Dacian
Scene 64/LXIV (detail): A Moorish rider confronts a Dacian warrior on foot.<br />From casts 157-158, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pl. 67. RBU2011.7146.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_64_xlv_lxiv_7147-draco-web.jpg]4280TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV/LXIV (scene 64): Dacian draco
Scene 64/LXIV: Detail of the Dacian draco standard. From cast 159, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pl. 67. RBU2011.7147.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7148-composite-web.jpg]10520TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXV (scene 65): Building Fortifications
Scene 65/LXV: Following flight and refuge by the Dacians into a forest (trees on the far left, cast 160), legionaries construct a fort on hilly ground, a job that requires the excavation of a trench (vallum) in the foreground, at the foot of the walls (Richmond sees the two pairs of excavators in a rivalry with one another; 1935: 22). One soldier uses a mallet to pound on a vertical support. A band of auxiliaries approaches from the left. <br />From casts 160-163, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI, scene 65 and Coarelli Pls. 69-70. RBU2011.7148-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_65-rbu2016_6805-65-web.jpg]400TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ (LXV): Building Fortifications
The camp-building scene LXV.<br />From the Column in situ.<br />RBU2016.6805.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7150-web.jpg]10170TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXV (scene 65): Soldiers at work
Scene 65/LXV (detail): Two legionaries at work on fortifications.<br />From cast 161, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI, scene 65 and Coarelli Pl. 70. RBU2011.7150
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7151-composite-web.jpg]10910TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI-XLVIII/LXVI (scene 66): Major Battle
Scene 66/LXVI (Composite from seven photographs): In cast #164 Trajan, flanked by officers, receives two Dacians, the one nearest the emperor bends to take (and kiss?) his hand. In the foreground a mule pulls an artillery cart. Meanwhile legionaries prepare heavy fortifications, including basements for ballistae. The crowded Roman soldiers await the signal to attack (#166). Note the slinger in the foreground of cast #167. In casts #168-169 the battle is at full height. The Dacians emerge from a wooded area. The Dacians also appear to have a ballista seen in the top of cast #169. In cast #170 Dacians are cutting trees, presumably to reinforce their position.<br />From casts #163-170, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XLVI-XLVIII, scene 66 and Coarelli Pls. 71-74. Ref: RBU2011.7151-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_66-rbu2011_7151-cart-web.jpg]4300TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI-XLVIII/LXVI (scene 66): Detail of a carroballista
Scene 66/LXVI: Detail of a carroballista, including the wheeled cart and mule.<br />From casts #163-164, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI, scene 66, and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7151-det..
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7153-web.jpg]10240TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXVI (scene 66): Trajan receives Dacians
Scene 66/LXVI: Trajan, outside a fortress and flanked by officers, receives two Dacians wearing loose caps (pileati), the one closest to the emperor bends to take (and kiss?) his hand.<br />From cast #164, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7153.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7157-web.jpg]10050TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXVI (scene 66): Trajan receives a Dacian
Scene 66/LXVI: Trajan, outside a fortress and flanked by officers, receives one of two Dacians, who bends to take (and kiss?) his hand.<br />From cast #164, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7157.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_71-72_xlvi-xlvii_lxvi_7153-detb-web.jpg]5180TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXVI (scene 66): Tents and artillery
Scene 66/LXVI: Detail of tents (upper left, behind the walls), gateway construction, and ballistae (upper right) in defensive positions at a Roman camp. <br />From cast #164, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7153.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7153-adze-axe-web.jpg]9740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (Scene 66): Woodcraft
Scene 66/LXVI: detail of a soldier working on a fallen log. The tool appears to be an adze, or a combination adze-axe. Using this tool the log can be trimmed and roughly squared.<br />From cast 165, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7153.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_72_xlvii_lxvi_7155-web.jpg]10290TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Soldiers at the ready
Scene 66/LXVI: Roman legionaries in full battle dress await the order to attack.<br />From cast #166, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7155.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_trajans_column_1982-246-lxvi-web.jpg]6210TRAJAN'S COLUMN LXVI (scene 66): Soldiers in situ
Scene 66/LXVI: Detail view of Roman legionaries and their offensive emplacements. Taken from scaffolding on site.<br />RBU1982.246
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_72_xlvii_lxvi_7156-web.jpg]10170TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Ballista
Scene 66/LXVI: Roman legionaries ready a ballista on a fortified position.<br />From cast #166, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7156.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_73_xlvii_lxvi_7160-web.jpg]10180TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Slingsman
Scene 66/LXVI: A soldier fighting on the Roman side holds a sling at ready in his hand. Extra ammunition hangs from his chest.<br />From cast #167, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7160.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_73_xlvii_lxvi_7162-web.jpg]9870TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Romans Attack
Scene 66/LXVI: Close-up detail of Roman soldiers rushing headlong into battle.<br />From cast #167, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7162.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_73_xlvii_lxvi_7161-web.jpg]9940TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Eastern Archers
Scene 66/LXVI: Roman allied archers, wearing full body armor and conical hats, join in battle against the Dacians.<br />From cast #167, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7161.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7163-web.jpg]9720TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII/LXVI (scene 66): Artillery
Scene 66/LXVI: It appears that two Dacians have managed to acquire a ballista in this scene - perhaps a captured Roman weapon? <br />From cast #169, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 73. Ref: RBU2011.7163.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7165-web.jpg]9740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII/LXVI (scene 66): Dacian standards
Scene 66/LXVI: Dacians with a draco standard and a vexillum (captured from the Romans?) watch their comrades fall in this epic battle scene.<br />From cast #170, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 74. Ref: RBU2011.7165.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7166-composite-web.jpg]9901TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII-XLIX/LXVII-LXVIII (scene 67-68): composite
Scenes 67-68/LXVII-LXVIII. In scene 67 (casts 171-172) Dacians in the wake of the great battle of Scene 66 hastily fell trees and construct a palisade, behind which is a prominent building (a sanctuary? A flat-roofed gate tower? Cf. Lepper/Frere 1988: 105). An imposing building in the background, on a rocky ridge, may be the palace of Decebalus at Sarmizegethusa (Coarelli 2000: 119), or an important fortified stronghold nearby. In a scene with a parallel theme (68) marked clearly by a pair of trees, Roman legionaries work to construct a Roman fort. Meanwhile (cast 174) the emperor, surrounded by his officers, receives a Dacian prisoner, one of the pileati, who is pulled towards the emperor by flanking auxiliaries.<br />From casts 171 - 175, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XLVIII-XLIX scenes 77-68 and Coarelli Pls. 75-76. Ref: RBU2011.7166-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7167-web.jpg]9350TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII/LXVII (scene 67): Dacian Priest?
Scene 67/LXVII: A "dignified" looking Dacian stands in a rocky setting, behind a palisade in the foreground. Perhaps he is a priest, and the scene records the capture of a Dacian sanctuary? (Cf. Lepper/Frere 1988: 105).<br />From cast #172, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 67 and Coarelli Pl. 75. Ref: RBU2011.7167.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7168-web.jpg]9090TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII/LXVII (scene 67): A Dacian axeman
Scene 67/LXVII: Detail of a Dacian wielding an axe or hatchet to chop at a tree in order to build a palisade.<br />From cast #171, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 67 and Coarelli Pl. 75. Ref: RBU2011.7168.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7169-web.jpg]8860TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXVIII (scene 68): Soldier-Builders
Scene 68/LXVIII (detail): Roman legionaries engaged in the requisite activities of a camp-building scene (from the bottom): a soldier carries a beam of wood on his shoulder, a soldier wields an axe, or, possibly, an adze-axe; two soldiers position blocks (or turves, according to some) for building a wall.<br />From casts 173, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIX scene 68 and Coarelli Pl. 76. Ref: RBU2011.7169.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7173-web.jpg]9400TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXVIII (scene 68): Trajan receives a prisoner
Scene 68/LXVIII: Trajan, surrounded by four officers, receives a Dacian prisoner of noble rank (a pileatus).<br />From casts 174-5, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIX scene 68 and Coarelli Pl. 77. Ref: RBU2011.7173.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7174-web.jpg]9250TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXVIII (scene 68): Roman auxiliaries
Scene 68/LXVIII: Five Roman auxiliaries. Contrast the shields they carry to those of the legionaries resting on the ground at the lower right.<br />From casts 174-5, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 67 and Coarelli Pl. 76. Ref: RBU2011.7174.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7172-composite-web.jpg]9590TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXIX (scene 69): Clearing the forest
Scene 69: Roman legionaries clear the forest in preparation for an attack. Axes must have been added as metal attachments that are now lost. Note the line of auxiliaries who march along the top of the relief, in the background. The action shifts abruptly to the right, where a full-scale attack begins (cast 177, Scene 70).<br />From casts 175-177, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIX, scene 69 and Coarelli Pls. 77-78. Ref: RBU2011.7172-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7172-web.jpg]9480TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXIX (scene 69): Axemen
Scene 69/LXIX (detail): Roman legionaries clear the forest in preparation for an attack. Axes must have been added as metal attachments that are now lost. From casts 175-176, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIX, scene 69 and Coarelli Pl. 77. Ref: RBU2011.7172.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_78_l_lxx_7176-composite-web.jpg]10661TRAJAN'S COLUMN L-LI/LXX-LXXI (Scenes 70-71): Attack on a Dacian Stronghold
Scenes 70-71From casts 177 - 182, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. L-LI scenes 70-71 and Coarelli Pls. 78-81. Ref: RBU2011.7176-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_2105-70-75-cropped-web.jpg]8690TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (scenes 70/LXX and 75/LXXV)
70/LXX and 75/LXXV: The furious battle of scene 70/LXX on spiral 10 (below) contrasts with the Dacian surrender scene (75/LXXV) on spiral 11 (above). The window marks the southeast axis of the Column, aligned with the main axis of the basilica and forum complex. From the Column in situ: RBU2013.2105.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_78_l_lxx_7177-web.jpg]10970TRAJAN'S COLUMN L/LXX (Scene 70): detail
Scenes 70/LXX: Romans bringing up the rear) and their allies (the former shown with oval shields and bare chests- clibanarii- attack the Dacians, stepping over the bodies of the fallen enemy in the foreground.From casts 177-178, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. L, scene 70 and Coarelli Pl. 78. Ref: RBU2011.7177.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7181-web.jpg]10862TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXI (Scene 71): testudo formation
Scene 71/LXXI: Detail of a Roman testudo formation. Legionaries create a unified shell of shields above their heads and around their bodies as they attack a Dacian stronghold.<br />From casts 181-2, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LI, scene 71 and Coarelli Pl. 80. Ref: RBU2011.7181.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3793-testudo-web.jpg]10320TRAJAN'S COLUMN (Scene 71): testudo in situ
The testudo formation of Scene 71/LXXI as it appeared on the Column in late 2013.RBU2013.3793
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7182-web.jpg]10120TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXI (Scene 71): A fallen Dacian
Scenes 71/LXXI: Detail of a fallen Dacian warrior.<br />From casts 180-181, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LI, scene 71 and Coarelli Pl. 80. Ref: RBU2011.7182.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7183-composite-web.jpg]10320TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI-LII/LXXII (Scene 72): Final Battle
Scene 72/LXXII: The last battle of the First Dacian War. Composite image. In cast 183 the emperor stands on high ground to survey the battle before him. Auxiliary troops are involved with the heavy fighting (casts 185-187) while legionaries stand in reserve (184). Two auxiliaries display severed heads to the emperor. Note the Balearic holding a sling in cast 185. Dacians collapse on the ground in casts 186 and 187.<br />From casts 183-187, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. LI-LII, scene 72 and Coarelli Pls. 81-83. Ref: RBU2011.7183-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7185-web.jpg]10240TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXII (Scene 72): Dacian Trophies
Scene 72/LXXII: Trajan is presented with trophies in the form of severed heads of Dacian warriors by his auxiliary troops.<br />From cast 183, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LI, scene 72 and Coarelli Pl. 81. Ref: RBU2011.7185.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_72-rbu2012_0005-web.jpg]5360TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXII (Scene 72): Trajan and an Officer
Scene 72/LXXII: Close view of Trajan and the officer who stands to his left (viewer right) as they are being presented with the severed heads of Dacians.<br />From cast 183, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LI, scene 72 and Coarelli Pl. 81. Ref: RBU2012.0005.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7188-web.jpg]9750TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXII (Scene 72): Rocks as weapons
Scene 72/LXXII: Alongside the legionaries an allied fighter prepares to throw a rock. He is probably armed with a sling, although the stance suggests nothing less than rock-throwing.<br />From cast 185, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LII, scene 72 and Coarelli Pl. 82. Ref: RBU2011.7188.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7189-web.jpg]9670TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXII (Scene 72): Dacian despair
Scene 72/LXXII: The last battle of the First Dacian War goes badly for the Dacians and a cloaked native thows his hands out in despair.<br />From cast 186, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LII, scene 72 and Coarelli Pl. 82 and 83. Ref: RBU2011.7189.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3822-web.jpg]9650TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI-LII/LXXII-LXXIII (Scenes 72-73)
Scenes 72-73/LXXII-LXXIII: There is a stark contrast between the fight raging in Scene 72 (left) and the camp construction scene that dominates Scene 73. Note the slender tree that acts as a divider. Trajan, in the midst of three officers, dominates the latter scene as he stands on the ramparts and supervises the project.<br />From the Column in situ. Compare Coarelli Pls. 83 and 84. Ref: RBU 2013:3822
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_84_lii_lxxiii_7192-web_0.jpg]9820TRAJAN'S COLUMN LII-LIII/LXXIII (Scene 73)
Scene 73/LXXIII (composite image): Trajan addresses his men within the walls of the camp (adlocutio). In the foreground soldiers work with their axes (dolabrae) on rough timber.<br />From casts 188-190, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. LII-LIII, scene 73 and Coarelli Pl. 84. Ref: RBU2011.7192-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_84_lii_lxxiii_7192-web.jpg]10270TRAJAN'S COLUMN LII/LXXIII (Scene 73): Camp Construction
Scene 73/LXXIII: Trajan addresses his men within the walls of the camp (adlocutio). In the foreground soldiers work with their axes (dolabrae) on rough timber - perhaps to prepare wood for artillery emplacements or to clear a line of fire.<br />From casts 188-89, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. LII-LIII, scene 73 and Coarelli Pl. 84. Ref: RBU2011.7192.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_73-rbu2012_0011-web.jpg]5900TRAJAN'S COLUMN LII/LXXIII (Scene 73): Detail of Trajan
Scene 73/LXXIII: Detail of Trajan flanked by his officers. (Scene of adlocutio). <br />From cast 188, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LII, scene 73 and Coarelli Pl. 84. Ref: RBU2012.0011.

The First Dacian War Ends: Scenes LXXIV-LXXVIII:

In the final scenes of the first Dacian war, we see Scene LXXV: The subjugation of the Dacian people; Scene LXXVII: A final speech given by Trajan to his men; Scene LXXVIII: A prominent winged Victoria figure who inscribes a shield in commemoration of the Roman victory.  This last scene  from the first Dacian War occurs half-way up the northwest axis of the Column.

scenes74-78

The last episodes of the First Dacian War

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_85_liii_lxxiv_7197-web.jpg]38830TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIII/LXXIV (Scene 74)
Scene 74/LXXIV: Roman soldiers pause at a spring. In the background, legionaries carry baggage to a cylindrical crenellated structure.From casts 191-192, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIII, scene 74 and Coarelli Pl. 85. Ref: RBU2011.7197.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_85_liii_lxxiv_7198-web.jpg]37610TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIII/LXXIV (Scene 74) (Detail 1)
Detail of Scene 74/LXXIV. Bearded Roman auxiliaries pause to drink from a natural spring in the rocks. Note how well the cast has preserved the texture of the chainmail the auxiliaries wear, as well as the focale scarfs around their necks.<br />From cast 191, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIII, scene 74 and Coarelli Pl. 85. Ref: RBU2011.7198.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_85_liii_lxxiv_7199-web.jpg]37460TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIII/LXXIV (Scene 74) (Detail 2)
Detail of Scene 74/LXXIV. A Roman auxiliary wearing bracae and the lorica hamata holds a horse's bridle as he and his comrades wait to enter a walled structure. Note how his balteus fits underneath his riding cloak.<br />From cast 191, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIII, scene 74 and Coarelli Pl. 85. Ref: RBU2011.7199.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_3758-web.jpg]38000TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): Surrender of the Dacians
Scene 75/LXXV: View of the southeast side of the Column. The emperor Trajan, seated on a raised platform of stone or brick, receives a large group of Dacians who have thrown their shields on the ground in surrender. Decebalus, who stands at the back of the group to the right, cannot be seen from this angle. There will be a final address to his troops, then Trajan ends the First Dacian War.<br />From the Column in situ. Similar to Cichorius Pl. LIV (scene 75). RBU2013.3758
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_86_liv_lxxv_7203-web.jpg]37490TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): Surrender of the Dacians
Scene 75/LXXV: Trajan accepts the surrender of the Dacians. Standard bearers form the background. The Dacian pileati have thrown their shields to the ground and raise their hands to the emperor, who is seated on a tribunal of squared stone or cut turf.<br />From cast 193, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIV, scene 75 and Coarelli Pl. 86. Ref: RBU2011.7203.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_86_0015-web.jpg]35590TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): Trajan Considers Dacian Surrender
Scene 75/LXXV (detail): Close view of the head of Trajan (last figure on the right) as he accepts the surreneder of the Dacians.<br />From cast 193, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIV, scene 75 and Coarelli Pl. 86. Ref: RBU2012.0015.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_86_0016a-web.jpg]35290TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): detail of Trajan
Scene 75/LXXV (detail): Trajan considers the surrender of the Dacians.<br />From cast 193, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIV, scene 75 and Coarelli Pl. 86. Ref: RBU2012.0016a.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_3809-web.jpg]36280TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): Decebalus Surrenders
Scene 75/LXXV: View of the southeast side of the Column. A prominent Dacian stands upon a rocky outcrop to the viewer's left. He is shown higher than his comrades before him who have thrown down their shields. This figure has been identified as Decebalus himself, one of <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/?page_id=866">six scenes</a> that are thought to represent the Dacian king. Note the pair of dragon standards in front of him.<br />From the Column in situ. Similar to Cichorius Pl. LIV (scene 75) and Coarelli Pl. 88. RBU2013.3809.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_7207-crop-web.jpg]35800TRAJAN'S COLUMN LV/LXXV (scene 75): Decebalus
Scene 75/LXXV: Detail of Decebalus(?). At the back of the Dacian line offering itself in surrender to Trajan stands a prominent Dacian on a rocky outcrop, extending his hands towards the emperor. He is shown here on the left, in front of two other Dacians who appear in conversation, perhaps sharing their grief at the ritual of defeat. The prominent location of this figure and his placement higher on a rocky outcrop has led to his identification as Decebalus himself.<br />From cast 198, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LV, scene 75 and Coarelli Pl. 88. Ref: RBU2011.7207.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_89_lv_lxxvi_7210-web.jpg]35690TRAJAN'S COLUMN LV/LXXVI (Scene 76): Destruction of fortifications
Scene 76/LXXVI: Two Dacians hack at their fortifications with metal tools (now missing), as King Decebalus surrenders on the left (not visible in this photo). From cast 199, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LV, scene 76 and Coarelli Pl. 89. Ref: RBU2011.7210.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_89_lv-lvi_lxxvi_7209-web.jpg]35800TRAJAN'S COLUMN LV-LVI/LXXVI (Scene 76): Dacian civilians
Scene 76/LXXVI: Dacian men, women, and children lament at the surrender of Decebalus who stands to the left (not visible in this photo.<br />From casts 199-201, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. LV-LVI, scene 76 and Coarelli Pl. 89. Ref: RBU2011.7209.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_89_lvi_lxxvi_7211-web.jpg]35290TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVI/LXXVI (Scene 76): Dacian deportation
Scene 76/LXXVI: A Dacian father grasps a boy's arm, pulling him firmly away. The Dacians are being deported from their lands as per the terms of King Decebalus' surrender.<br />From cast 201, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVI, scene 76 and Coarelli Pl. 89. Ref: RBU2011.7211.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_7056-web.jpg]35570TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVI/LXXVII (Scene 77): Final Address
Scene 77/LXXVII: In his final adlocutio of the first Dacian War, Trajan addresses his soldiers He is dressed in his traveling clothes for departure. The raised arms of the soldiers may indicate the acclamation of his troops as he is hailed "Dacicus" (Coarelli 2000: 134).<br />From casts 202-203, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVI, scene 77 and Coarelli Pls. 90. Ref: RBU2011.7056.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_91-92_lvii_lxxviii_7212-composite-web.jpg]36130TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVII/LXXVIII (scene 78): Victory and Trophies
Scene 78/LXXVIII: A winged Victory inscribes a shield bordered with laurel leaves at the close of the first Dacian War. Her left foots rests upon a Dacian helmet (note the others at the base of and mounted upon the trophy itself. <br />From casts 204-206, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVII, scene 78 and Coarelli Pls. 91-91. Ref: RBU2011.7212-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_3819-web.jpg]36360TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVII/LXXVIII (scene 78): Victory
Scene 78/LXXVIII: At the conclusion of the first Dacian War the winged goddess Victoria inscribes a record of Trajan's victory upon a shield. Her left foot rests upon a helmet. She is flanked by two trophies. The image appears halfway up the Column on the northwest side, probably facing the principal entrance to the Forum complex from the direction of the Campus Martius.<br />From the Column in situ. RBU2013.3819<br />Cichorius Pl. LVII, Scene 78.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_92_lvii_lxxviii_7214-web.jpg]35030TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVII/LXXVIII (Scene 78) (Detail of Victory)
A winged Victory inscribes the report of Trajan's victory on a shield.<br />From cast 205, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVII, scene 78 and Coarelli Pls. 91-92. Ref: RBU2011.7214.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_91_lvii_lxxviii_7215-web.jpg]35360TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVII/LXXVIII (Scene 78): The left trophy
A detail of the first of the two trophies flanking the winged Victory at the center of the frieze. This trophy comprises a Dacian cloak, several shields, a helmet with starburst patterns on the cranium and cheekpieces, as well as four draco standards.<br />From cast 204, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVII, scene 78 and Coarelli Pl. 91. Ref: RBU2011.7215.

Continue to Images and commentary on the Second Dacian War.

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