scenes22-25

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_22_6975-web.jpg]10.8k0TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVII/XXII (Scene 22)
Scene 22/XXII (Spiral 3): Assembly of soldiers in anticipation of battle, including standard-bearers on the far right. The setting is in a forest, as indicated by the line of trees at the top of the relief.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVII (Scene 22); Casts nos. 51-52 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6975composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_23-24_6977comp-web.jpg]92991TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVII/XXIII-XXIV (Scenes 23-24)
Scene 23/XXIII (Spiral 3): Soldiers clear a forest.Scene 24 (right): The beginning of the first major battle scene.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVII (Scene 23); Casts nos. 53-54 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6977comp. (Composite from two photographs).
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_24_6977comp24-web.jpg]95505TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVII-XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV (right): The first major battle scene. Note the presence of Jupiter Tonans in the upper right of the scene. His presence has given the name of scene 24 as the "Battle in the Thunderstorm."<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVII-XIX (Scene 24); Casts nos. 55-62 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6977comp24. (Composite from seven photographs).
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_5466-24-web.jpg]31680TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: In the center of the scene, just above the window (on the northeast side of the Column), Trajan is presented with the severed heads of his adversaries. The emperor and his officers are standing in front of a walled fort.<br />RBU2015.5466
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_5463-rbu2015-24-web.jpg]43662TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: The first great battle scene, right side, in situ. Jupiter joins the Roman side. His raised right arm is poised to throw a (missing) thunderbolt. RBU2015.5463
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6978-web.jpg]82490TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVIII/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the standard-bearers at the beginning (left side) of the scene.<br />Cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XVIII (Scene 24); cast no. 55 and Coarelli Pl. 22. Ref: RBU 2011.6978
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6981-web.jpg]77891TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVIII/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Trajan (left) with an advisor is presented with severed heads of Dacian warriors held by Roman auxiliaries.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XVIII, Scene 24 and Coarelli Pl. 22. Ref: RBU 2011.6981.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6983-web.jpg]75901TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVIII-XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: The first great battle. Roman auxiliary infantry and calvary fight the Dacians.From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XVIII-XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 23. Ref: RBU 2011.6983.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6984-web.jpg]71550TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVIII-XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the first great battle scene. A fallen Dacian warrior. Scene #24 represents the first images of dead or wounded Dacians.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XVIII-XIX and Coarelli Pl. 23. Ref: RBU 2011. 6984.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6985-web.jpg]71401TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the first great battle scene. Roman allies on the left, Dacians on the right. Note the archer at the top of the relief, and the auxiliary who holds the severed head of a Dacian in his mouth (center right).From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6985.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6985a-web.jpg]69120TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the first great battle scene. A Roman auxiliary holds the severed head of a Dacian in his mouth in the midst of battle.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 23. Ref: RBU2011.6985a.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6986-web.jpg]68841TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Segment of the first great battle scene. Jupiter joins the Roman side.A bearded Jupiter Tonans (the "Thunderer") appears in the sky to aid the Roman cause. His right hand presumably held a thuderbolt. His inclusion may refer to an actual thunderstorm that took place during the battle. Included in the scene is a brilliant representation of a defeated Dacian semi-reclined at ground level.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6986.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6988-web.jpg]66490TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of Jupiter Tonans, who appears in the sky to aid the Romans during their first great battle scene against the Dacians.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6988.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_2065-jupiter-web.jpg]61690TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24): Jupiter
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the first great battle scene. Jupiter joins the Roman side. His right hand presumably held a thuderbolt. Actual relief in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2013.2065.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6990-web.jpg]65900TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: The end of the first great battle. The Dacians carry off their dead and wounded comrades. The Dacian king, Decebalus, watches from the cover of a pine forest (upper right). This is the first appearance of the Dacian king on the Column (his last appearance is the suicide scene of #145).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6990.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_2065-decebalus-web.jpg]61440TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24): Decebalus
Scene 24/XXIV: The Dacian king, Decebalus, witnesses the defeat of his men from the cover of a pine forest (upper right). This is the first appearance of the Dacian king on the Column, and one of <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/?page_id=866">six scenes</a> that are thought to represent the Dacian king.<br />Actual relief in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2013.2065-D.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6990a-adj-web.jpg]64170TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIX/XXIV (Scene 24)
Scene 24/XXIV: Detail of the Head of Decebalus.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIX (Scene 24) and Coarelli Pl. 24. Ref: RBU2011.6990a.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_25-rbu2015_5467-web.jpg]25080TRAJAN'S COLUMN Scene XXV in situ
Scene 25/XXV: In the middle band of this image, Trajan inspects the occupation of a Dacian fort, while Dacians flee on the right side of the scene. Behind the emperor, in Scene 24/XXIV, Dacian soldiers attend to their wounded. The top of Scene 20/XX is visible at the bottom of the photo, and the bottom of Scene 33/XXXIII is visible at the top. <br />From the Column in situ. Ref. RBU2015.5467.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6993-web.jpg]64680TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: Trajan inspects the occupation of a Dacian fort, while Dacians flee towards the right. In the foreground, Roman soldiers set fire to wooden buildings built upon vertical piles. The walls of the fort are protected by pits filled with sharpened spikes (lilia). Along the fortification walls skulls have been placed on poles, perhaps the remains of Roman soldiers from earlier campaigns - the unsuccessful forays by Domitian? (Coarelli 2000: 69).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XX (Scene 25) and Coarelli Pl. 25. Ref: RBU 2011.6993.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_2046-25-web.jpg]62830TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: The burning of a Dacian town. Note the planked houses built on piles in the foreground (left), and the sharpened sticks in pits used as traps (lilia) against Roman attackers. Skulls on poles lining the fortifications allude to Dacian atrocities against the Romans. A Dacian "draco" standard flies prominently in the background. The actual relief in situ. Scene 26 begins to the right of the trees. Ref: RBU2013.2046
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6992-web.jpg]61731TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: Trajan and advisors inspect a captured Dacian fort. Not the the emperor (right) holds an inverted spear, a pose that suggests he has formally taken possession of Dacian territory (Coarelli 2000: 69). Coulston notes that the upper half of the spear was added as a metal attachment, and was perhaps double-pointed like that in Scene 27 (Coulston 1990: 294).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XX (Scene 25) and Coarelli Pl. 25. Ref: RBU 2011.6992.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_2061-vs-6992-s25-web.jpg]59890TRAJAN'S COLUMN: Scene 25/XXV comparison
Scene 25/XXV (detail): Trajan inspecting the enemies fortifications. On left: actual relief in situ. On right: Detail of cast no. 67 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana.The degree of weathering over the last 150 years appears negligible, with the possible exception of the face of the officer standing behind Trajan.<br />Ref Left: RBU2013.2061; Right: RBU2011.6992.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_trajans_column_1982-248-xxv-web.jpg]31630TRAJAN'S COLUMN: Scene XXV in situ
Scene 25/XXV (detail): Close view of Trajan. Taken from modern scaffolding. <br />RBU1982-248.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6994-web.jpg]60860TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: Detail of the burning of a Dacian wooden building constructed on piles. The planking of the exterior walls is clearly indicated, along with nail heads or the ends of dowels.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XX (Scene 25) and Coarelli Pl. 25. Ref: RBU 2011.6994.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes22-25/thumbs/thumbs_img_6995-web.jpg]61430TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXV (Scene 25)
Scene 25/XXV: Dacian soldiers flee from their captured fortress.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XX (Scene 25) and Coarelli Pl. 25. Ref: RBU 2011.6995.

scenes26-30

Scene 26: River Crossing; Scene 27: adlocutio; Scene 28: Reception of a Dacian embassy; Scene 29:Roman Reconnaissance; Scene 30: Captured Dacian Women

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_26-27_rbu-3841-web.jpg]36780TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 26-27)
Scenes 26/XXVI and 27/XXVII (Spiral 4, SW): On the left (Scene 26), Roman soldiers cross a river. This episode is followed immediately by an adlocutio scene.<br />From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pls. XX and XXI, Scenes XXVI and XXVII.<br />RBU2013.3841
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_26_6997-web.jpg]40931TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXVI (Scene 26)
Scene 26/XXVI is a relatively compact scene that shows Roman legionaries crossing a river (visible in the foreground). Soldiers, including a horn-player and a standard-bearer with his bearskin hood, wade across the water. L. Rossi suggests that the troops shown may represent reinforcements sent to augment the army after the Roman losses at the Battle of Tapae (1971: 144). On the far right a soldier has piled his gear on a shield and holds it high over his head. An odd structure is visible in the background: A fort? A Sanctuary? (Coarelli 2000: 70).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XX, scene 26 and Coarelli Pl. 26. Ref: RBU2011.6997.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_26_6998-web.jpg]37172TRAJAN'S COLUMN XX/XXVI (Scene 26)
Scene 26/XXVI (detail): A Roman soldier carries his kit on his shield during a river crossing. To his left, a standard-bearer.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XX, scene 26 and Coarelli Pl. 26. Ref: RBU2011.6998.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_27_6999-composite-web.jpg]35870TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVII (scene 27)
Scene 27/XXVII appears to include two different events. Trajan addresses his troops from a raised platform of masonry or brick. Immediately behind and in front of the soldiers he addresses we see a group (nine are shown) of Dacians(?) and their escorts, three of the former on horseback, approaching the emperor. The lead barbarian auxiliary escort on foot in the foreground, holding an oval shield, appeals to Trajan, as if asking for permission to speak. All the Dacians bringing up the rear are bareheaded, with long hair and beards, thus to be understood as Dacians of lower ranks, the <em>comati</em> (Rossi 1971: 144). Lepper and Frere suggest that the entire group comprises barbarian allies, in contrast to the scene no. 28 that follows, where Dacian identity appears more certain (1988: 76).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 27 and Coarelli Pls. 26-7. Ref: RBU2011.6999-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_img_2030-web.jpg]27370TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 27-28)
Scenes 27/XXVII-28/XXVIII: Following the river-crossing scene (26/XXVI) still visible on the left, Trajan addresses his troops from a raised tribunal. The emperor appears again immediately to the right of this scene in front of the walled fort with a tent and guards within (visible on the right). In both scenes Dacians are being received. The oars of a Roman ship from Scene 34/XXXIV are visible above. From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pls. 20/XX-20/XXI. RBU2013.20130.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_27_3771-web.jpg]32830TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVII (scene 27)
Scene 27/XXVII: Trajan addresses his troops. <br />The emperor holds a spear that is pointed at both ends. A ceremonial spear intended as an award?<br />From the Column of Trajan in situ. RBU2013.3771.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_27_7001-web.jpg]32240TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVII (scene 27)
Scene 27/XXVII: Detail of the standards in the <i>adlocutio<i/> scene.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 27 and Coarelli Pl. 26. Ref: RBU2011.7001.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_27_7003-web.jpg]30980TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVII (scene 27) - Detail
Scene 27/XXVII: Detail of a mounted Dacian(?) horseman who has approached the emperor Trajan who stands and addresses a group of Roman soldiers. The Dacian is shown as part of an embassy sent to confer with the Romans. These are evidently Dacians of lower rank, with their bare heads and long hair (called <i>comati<i/>; see Rossi 1971: 144). Note that Lepper and Frere (1988: 76) argue that the "Dacians" are in fact barbarian allies.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 27 and Coarelli Pls. 27. Ref: RBU2011.7003.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_28_xxi_xxviii_7004-composite-web.jpg]31350TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVIII (scene 28)
Scene 28/XXVIII: Outside the walls of a Roman fort, Trajan receives an embassy of Dacians. His left hand holds a sheathed sword. Two legionaries watch from inside the walls. Coarelli suggests that this is a continuation of the previous scene (2000: 72). As in Scene 27, the Dacians shown are members of the comati, well dressed with tasseled cloaks.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 28 and Coarelli Pls. 28. Ref: RBU2011.7004
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_28_xxi_xxviii_7005-web.jpg]30361TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXI/XXVIII (scene 28)
Scene 28/XXVIII (detail): A closer view of Trajan, on the left and in front, receiving an embassy of Dacians. In the background: the walls of a Roma camp.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXI, scene 27 and Coarelli Pls. 28. Ref: RBU2011.7005.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_29_xxii_xxix_7007-composite-web.jpg]32780TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXIX-XXX (scenes 29-30)
Scenes 29 and 30 are piled upon one another. From the left, Scene 29 begins with fighting and destruction: Auxiliary riders torch a building, others attack Dacians (lower left), some of whom flee with their children. Livestock are killed and left in piles (right foreground). In scene 30 Trajan gestures to a Dacian woman holding her child. Her isolation in the scene and her carriage have led to suggestions that she is a noble Dacian, perhaps even the sister of Decebalus (Lepper/Frere 1988: 76). In any case, Trajan is shown as compassionate, in contrast to the violence that swirls around this scene. Additional Dacian women crowd behind the single figure, guarded by Roman auxiliaries. A ship is in the background, perhaps to represent a scene of deportation of women and children from the field of battle (Coarelli 2000: 73) . . . or to take prime prisoners back to Rome. <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 29-30 and Coarelli Pl. 29. Ref: RBU2011.7007-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_img_3800-30-web.jpg]27160TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 29-30)
Scenes 29/XXIX and 30/XXX: Spiral 4: The scene focuses on the capture and subjugation of Dacians. Soldiers on horseback can be seen torching buildings (top, center). A few Dacian stragglers are dispatched by Soldiers (lower left). Captured women holding their children crowd the center of the scene, and slaughtered livestock are piled below. Trajan gestures to a departing Dacian "noble" lady. Who is she? The sister of Decebalus (cf. Lepper/Frere 1988:76-77)?<br />From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. 32, Coarelli Pl. 29; Lehmann-Hartleben Pl. 17. RBU2013.3800.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_30_xxii_xxx_7009-web.jpg]32350TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXX (scene 30): Detail
Scene 30/XXX: Surrounded by Roman guards, captured Dacian women hold their children and plea for mercy.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 30 and Coarelli Pl. 29. Ref: RBU2011.7009.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes26-30/thumbs/thumbs_30_xxii_xxx_7010-web.jpg]31071TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXX (scene 30): Detail
Scene 30/XXX: Detail of a Dacian woman and her child, who have been spared by Trajan and are being directed towards a ship in the background. The woman, "most aristocratic" of the prisoners (Coarelli 2000: 73), may even be the sister of the Dacian leader, Decebalus (Lepper/Frere 1988: 77).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 30 and Coarelli Pl. 29. Ref: RBU2011.7010.

scenes31-38

Scene 31: Dacian Counterattack; Scene 32: Attack on a Roman fort; Scene 33: Riverside scene; Scene 34: Transport by ship; Scene 35: Trajan with the Danube fleet; Scene 36: Roman troops on the march; Scene 37: Calvary and Scouts defeat Sarmatians; Scene 38: Roman attack by night.

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_30_xxiii_xxxi_7012-composite31-33-web.jpg]35952TRAJAN'S COLUMN COMPOSITE IMAGE OF SCENES 31-33
Scene 31/XXXI: Dacian cavalry are shown swept away by the current of the Danube in this attack on Lower Moesia. Scene 32: Attack on a Roman Fort. Scene 33: Riverside harbor.<br />From casts now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XXIII-XXV, scenes 31-33 and Coarelli Pls. 30-33. Ref: RBU2011.7012-composite31-33.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiii_xxxi_7012-composite-web.jpg]31751TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII-XXIV/XXXI-XXXII (scenes 31-32)
Scene 31/XXXI: A counterattack by Dacians and their allies may have taken place in the winter of 101-102 CE. Dacian cavalry are shown swept away by the current of the Danube in this attack on Lower Moesia. Warriors on firmer ground pull some of their comrades from the freezing water. The top center of the scene is bordered by a Dacian dragon standard. To the right, Dacian allies: Sarmatians -- or Roxolani (Coarelli 2000: 74) on armored horses ("cataphractati"; see Rossi 1971: 148) move towards a Roman fort (Scene 32). <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scenes 31-32 and Coarelli Pls. 30-31. Ref: RBU2011.7012-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_5466-31-32-web.jpg]10221TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: XXXI-XXXII (Scenes 31-32)
Scenes 31-32/XXI-XXXII: To the left, Dacians struggle to ford a river (perhaps an an attack on Lower Moesia and a winter crossing (101-102 CE?) of the Danube). A draco standard flies high in the background. Armored horses ridden by Dacian allies charge off to the right of this scene. To the right (Scene XXXII) Dacians assault a Roman camp. <br />From the Column in situ. RBU2015.5466.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiii_xxxi_7013-web.jpg]30202TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXXI (scene 31): Detail
Scene 31/XXXI: Detail. A Dacian warrior kneels on a bank and pulls a fallen comrade from the freezing water. The scene emphasizes the quality of the Dacian fighting man and the dangers of waging an attack during the winter.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 31 and Coarelli Pl. 30. Ref: RBU2011.7013
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiii_xxxi_7015-web.jpg]28210TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXXI (scenes 31): Detail
Scene 31/XXXI: Detail. Two Dacian warriors stride towards the right; the one in front holds the dragon standard. Upper right: cataphract calvary (Roxolani; see next image?) charge off to attack the Roman fort in Scene 32.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 31 and Coarelli Pl. 30. Ref: RBU2011.7015
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiii_xxxi_7016-web.jpg]27670TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIII/XXXI (scene 31): Detail
Scene 31/XXXI: Detail: Calvary allied to the Dacians ("cataphract" calvary -- those that ride in armor on armored horses -- perhaps a tribe of the Roxolani?) charge off to attack the Roman fort in Scene 32. Primary sources that point to the identification of the the riders as Sarmatian Roxolani are in particular Tacitus <i>Historiae</i> 1.79 and Josephus <i>Bellum Judaicum</i> 7.4.3<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIII, scene 31 and Coarelli Pl. 30. Ref: RBU2011.7016
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_5464-rbu2015-32-web.jpg]15230TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXII (scene 32)
Scene 32/XXXII: A Dacian assault against a Roman camp. Archers are visible on the left side of the arched gate and to the right and behind the group holding a battering ram. A tree creates a firm division between this scene and the one beginning on the far right.<br />A view of the relief in situ. RBU2015.5464
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiv_xxxii_7018-composite-web.jpg]27670TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIV/XXXII (scene 32): Composite Image
An expanded and flattened view of Scene 32/XXXII made from three separate photos. Note places of distortion, especially visible in the upper borders and in the lines of masonry on the walls of the Roman camp . . . these are actually rendered as perfectly parallel rows of ashlar masonry.Dacians, including several archers, attack a solidly-built Roman camp defended by auxiliary forces. The motifs on the shields have been studied to distinguish different cohorts (e.g., Rossi 1971: 148). The clean shaven attacker in the foreground center has been recognized since Cichorius published the images as a non-Dacian, perhaps a Roman deserter (also Coarelli 2000: 75; Lepper and Frere 1988: 80). A prominent battering ram is being carried in from the right . . . perhaps the Dacians are imitating Roman practice, or its presence is simply evidence of Dacian knowlege of Hellenistic military devices (Lepper and Frere 1988: 80). Here, too, we see evidence that metail attachments must have been part of the furnishings of the Column: spears in the hands of the defenders, weapons in those of the attackers. <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. <br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIV, scene 32 and Coarelli Pl. 31. Ref: RBU2011.7018-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiv_xxxii_7020-web.jpg]26050TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIV/XXXII (scene 32)
Scene 32/XXXII: Detail of a battering ram employed by Dacian attackers against a Roman camp.From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. <br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIV, scene 32 and Coarelli Pl. 31. Ref: RBU2011.7020
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_31_xxiv_xxxii_7021-web.jpg]25540TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIV/XXXII (scene 32): Detail
Scene 32/XXXII: Detail of Roman auxiliaries defending their camp.The careful attention to the motifs on the shields has suggested to scholars like Rossi that the intention was to recognize individual cohorts. Note the thunderbolt motif at the center and far right, perhaps an indication of the <i>cohortes civium Romanorum</i> (discussion in Rossi 1971: 148; Lepper/Frere 1988: 80). <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIV, scene 32 and Coarelli Pl. 31. Ref: RBU2011.7021
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33-34-rbu2015-img_5471-web.jpg]13050TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: XXXIII-XXXIV (scenes 33-34)
Scenes 33-34/XXXIII-XXXIV: Two naval themes are separated by a superimposed set of standing arches. To the left, an embarkation scene; the river voyage continues on the right side. The window visible on the right marks the southwest axis of the Column. Compare to Cichorius Plates XXV and XXVI. RBU2015.5461
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32-33_xxv-xxxiii-7022_composite-web.jpg]25370TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33)
Scene 33/XXXIII: A composite image from three photographs of a riverside harbor scene. Cichorius's Scene 33 could be divided into two parts. Both take place along the bank of a river, presumably the Danube itself, although at what exact harbor there has been much debate. On the left, Roman auxiliaries load bundles of goods on cargo ships. In the left background is a walled town with well built structures. An amphitheater, built of stone blocks, stands outside the city walls and acts as a divider for the action to the right. Here Trajan, dressed in his traveling clothes including his cloak (<i>paenula</i>) holds the attention of a group of standard-bearers, who carry the distinctive wreathed emblems of the praetorians (Lepper/Frere 1988: 81). The setting is once again dominated by buildings, including two triumphal or commemorative arches on the far right; the one in the foreground carries a statue of a chariot. Oarsmen man a warship ion the right side of the relief.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scenes 33 and Coarelli Pls. 32-33. RBU2011.7022-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_2066-33-web.jpg]20360TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33)
Scene 33/XXXIII: The harbor scene in situ. Trajan is visible facing his standard bearers on the far right.<br />RBU2013.2066
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_2049-web.jpg]19130TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ (scene 33)
Scene 33/XXXIII: A riverside harbor scene. Trajan faces his standard bearers. He and his companions wear their traveling cloaks (<i>paenulae</i>; cf. Lepper/Frere 1988: 81). A pair of high arches, the one in the foreground crowned with the statue of a chariot, forms the scene divider. From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. 25/XXV. RBU2013.2049
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32-33_xxv_xxxiii_7028-web.jpg]23370TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of Romans manning a warship (from the riverside scene on Trajan's Column).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pls. 32-33. Ref: RBU2011.7028
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32_xxv_xxxiii_7023-web.jpg]22500TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Auxiliaries load baggage on a ship in a riverside harbor scene.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. <br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scenes 33 and Coarelli Pl. 32. Ref: RBU2011.7023
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32_xxv_xxxiii_7026-web.jpg]22550TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail view of the praetorian standards, held by bearers in attendance upon Trajan (not visible).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pls. 32-33. Ref: RBU2011.7026
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxv_xxxiii_7030-web.jpg]22060TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of Trajan and his companions.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pl. 33.Ref: RBU2011.7030
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_9926a-web.jpg]21850TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail of Trajan
Scene 33/XXXIII: From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pl. 33.Ref: RBU2012.9926
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_32_xxv_xxxiii_7025-web.jpg]21950TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of an amphitheater that stands outside a walled town, just visible to the left.The arcades of stone and an attic level are clearly depicted.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pl. 32. Ref: RBU2011.7025
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_trajans_column_view249-web.jpg]11640TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of a <i>quadriga</i> shown on the top of a triumphal arch (image taken from scaffolding).<br />RBU1982.249
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxv_xxxiv_7031-adj-web.jpg]21880TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXV/XXXIII (scene 33): detail
Scene 33/XXXIII: Detail of a <i>quadriga</i> shown on the top of a triumphal arch. From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXV, scene 33 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2011.7031
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxv_xxxiv_7033-composite-web.jpg]22960TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV-XXXV (scenes 34-5)
Scenes 34/XXXIV-35/XXXV: On the left,Trajan sails with the Danube fleet, presumably to assist the province of lower Moesia (Coarelli 2000: 78). On the upper left: a rocky spit of land frames the river scene. Perhaps the intention is to depict the juncture of two rivers (the Save and the Danube(?); discussion in Lepper and Frere 1988: 83). Rossi (1971:48) indicates that the embarkation place is a port "of some importance." Note that the emperor himself steers the lower ship in the center of the scene. Right: Scene 35: Arrival of Trajan (who is seen on the far right, framed by the arched entrance to a fortress or a river town. The exact location of this place is speculative: the general location is lower Moesia. Oescus or Novae are "likely candidates" (Lepper and Frere 1988: 84; Cichorius preferred Drobeta). <br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scenes 34-35 and Coarelli Pls. 33-35. <br />Ref: RBU2011.7033-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxvi_xxxiv_7034-web.jpg]21700TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34)
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a helmsman in leftmost ship of a Danube River scene.The man depicted wears a short, richly-curled beard and a short tunic, and holds his steering-oar.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 34 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2011.7034
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_3773-ppt.jpg]19210TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34)
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a helmsman in leftmost ship of a Danube River scene. Note the shelter for two fellow oarsmen, the shield resting on the roof of the shelter, and the kit bag hanging from the overhang. This image of the relief in situ on the Column illustrates how a raking sun can pick out figures in higher relief. RBU2013.3773
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxvi_xxxiv_7035-web.jpg]20770TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34)
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a two rowers in the leftmost ship of Scene 34.The man on the left is bearded; his companion on the right is clean shaven with a line of curls framing his face. The two are engaged in conversation. The sculptor did not continue the shaft of the oars up to their right hands, an evident error (cf. Lepper and Frere 1988: 83).<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 34 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2011.7035
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_3842-web.jpg]19440TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34): Trajan at the helm
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a Trajan as helmsman in a Danube River scene. The tentlike structure that rises from the stern of the ship is clearly visible.Actual relief in situ.Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 34 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2013.3842
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_33_xxvi_xxxiv_7037-web.jpg]20530TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXIV (scene 34): Trajan at the helm
Scene 34/XXXIV: Detail of a Trajan managing a steering oar in a Danube River scene.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 34 and Coarelli Pl. 33. Ref: RBU2011.7037
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_35_9935_xxxv-web.jpg]20480TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVI/XXXV (scene 35): Trajan disembarks
Scene 35/XXXV: Detail of Trajan as he disembarks from his voyage on the Danube. The head of the emperor is framed by an arched entrance to a walled town.<br />From a cast now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVI, scene 35 and Coarelli Pl. 35. Ref: RBU2012.9935
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_36-8_xxvii-viii_7041-43-composite-web.jpg]23062TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVII-VIII/XXXVI-VII (scenes 36-37)
Composite image of Scenes 36/XXXVI and 37/XXXVII of Trajan's Column. Scene 36: Trajan is shown on horseback on the left (cast #90). Cichorius indicated a scene break at the center tree, although it appears that Trajan is receiving a report in a wooded zone from mounted scouts before him (cast #91). In the following scene (37) the Roman cavalry falls upon men and their horses covered in scaled armor, identified as the cataphract Roxolan cavalry (Rossi 1971: 150); one of the fallen enemy dominates the foreground of the scene (cast #93).<br />From casts now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana.<br />Compare Cichorius, Pls. XXVII-VIII, scenes 36-7 and Coarelli Pls. 36-38. Ref. RBU 2011.7041-43-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_3802-adj-web.jpg]20221TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 36/XXXVI)
Scene 36/XXXVI: Trajan leads both cavalry and foot soldiers through a forest of mixed species. Two horsemen approach him from the right. We can see the top of Scene 30/XXX below this scene, where Trajan gestures towards the image of a woman and child.<br />From the Column in situ. Similar to Cichorius Pl. 27 and Coarelli Pl. 36. RBU2013.3802
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_35-6-xxvii-xxxvi_7042-web.jpg]22680TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVII/XXXVI (scene 36): detail
Scene 36/XXXVI: Auxiliaries accompany Trajan on a march. Among these are soldiers identified as German "allies" (symmachiarii); the center figure is carrying a club (from a Baltic tribe, the Aestii? Cf. Rossi 1971: 150). The oval shields carried by the bearded and trousered flanking figures are characteristic of the auxiliaries. <br />From a cast (#89) now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVII, scene 36 and Coarelli Pls. 35-6. Ref: RBU2011.7042
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_36-xxvii-xxxvi_7044-web.jpg]22050TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVII/XXXVI (scene 36): detail of Trajan
Scene 36/XXXVI: The emperor, mounted on his horse, leads a group of auxiliaries. Trajan's cloak, the paludamentum, billows behind him. Other cavalry are on foot, leading their horses. Lepper and Frere note the interesting pendants hanging from a neck band on the horse; they state that on the Column of Marcus Aurelius only the emperor's horse is shown with the crescent moon (the case is less clear-cut on the Column of Trajan).<br />From a cast (#90) now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVII, scene 36 and Coarelli Pl. 36. Ref: RBU2011.7044
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_38-xxviii-xxxvii_7047-web.jpg]22560TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVIII/XXXVII (scene 37): Cavalry attack
Scene 37/XXXVII: Auxiliary Calvary attack armored men and horses: the cataphract Roxolan cavalry.<br />From Casts (#93-4) now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVIII, scene 37 and Coarelli Pl. 38. Ref: RBU2011.7047
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_38-xxviii-xxxvii_7049-web.jpg]21060TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVIII/XXXVII (scene 37): Fallen calvaryman
Scene 37/XXXVII: Detail of a fallen Roxolan rider.<br />From Casts (#93-4) now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVIII, scene 37 and Coarelli Pl. 38. Ref: RBU2011.7049
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_38-xxviii-xxxvii_7050-web.jpg]21040TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXVIII/XXXVII (scene 37): Armored Horse
Scene 37/XXXVII: Detail of an armored horse of a Roxolan rider.<br />From Cast (#94), now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXVIII, scene 37 and Coarelli Pl. 38. Ref: RBU2011.7050
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_39_xxix_xxxviii_7052-composite-web.jpg]23362TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX/XXXVIII (scene 38): composite
Scene 38/XXXVIII: The episode is framed on the left and the right by trees. Roman auxiliaries attack Dacians during a night raid. The personification of Night, or "Nyx," is portrayed on the upper left (cast 95). The auxiliaries include club-wielding allies. The clean-shaven Dacians in the middle of cast 96 and the top of cast 98 may be Roman deserters (Coarelli 2000: 83). Wagons loaded with goods stolen from the Romans frame the top middle of the scene. Defeated Dacians fall in the foreground, including a Dacian who is trying to remove an arrow from his shoulder (cast 98, bottom). Note the similarity between the image of the fallen Dacian with one knee bent at the bottom of cast 97 and the final representation of Decebalus in the suicide of Scene #145.<br />Composite image from Casts (#95-98), now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIX, scene 38 and Coarelli Pls. 38-40. Ref: RBU2011.7052-60-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_39_xxix_xxxviii_7053-web.jpg]21990TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX/XXXVIII (scene 38): Nyx
Scene 38/XXXVIII: Detail of the personification of Night, "Nyx."The presence of the divinity suggests the Roman attack takes place by night on the Dacians in lower Moesia. The rocky landscape suggests the rising of the Moon - perhaps the female figure carries this meaning, too(?) The representation is paralleled by that of Jupiter in Scene 24. <br />From Cast (#95), now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIX, scene 38 and Coarelli Pl. 39. Ref: RBU2011.7053
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_img_7054-crop1-web.jpg]15080TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX/XXXVIII (scene 38): carts
Scene 38/XXXVIII: Battle at Night: detail. Wagons loaded with Dacian gear. Note the draco standard on the upper left and the amphora lying on its side.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIX, scene 38 and Coarelli Pl. 39. Ref: RBU2011.7054
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes31-38/thumbs/thumbs_39_xxix_xxxviii_7055-web.jpg]21870TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX/XXXVIII (scene 38): detail
Scene 38/XXXVIII: Battle at Night: detail. Barbarian allies fight the Dacians. From casts #96-7 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXIX, scene 38 and Coarelli Pl. 39. Ref: RBU2011.7055

scenes39-45

Scene 39: Reception of Dacian nobles; Scene 40: Second Major Battle Against the Dacians (Battle of the Bandages); Scene 41: Retreat of Dacians; Scene 42: Trajan addresses his troops after battle; Scene 43: Dacian Prisoners; Scene 44: Soldiers receive rewards from Trajan; Scene 45: Torture of Roman Prisoners

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_40-41_xxix-xxx_xxxviii-xxxix_7060-composite-web.jpg]31850TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXIX-XXXII/XXXIX-XL (scenes 39-40): composite
Scenes 39/XXXIX and 40/XL: In casts #99 and #100 the emperor stands on a platform and receives three Dacian nobles (pileati; note the characteristic "stocking" or Phrygian type hat). Below this group we see older men, women, and children descending towards the foreground, where Roman soldiers construct a fort from blocks of sod or stone. They are civilians: Perhaps of Moesia, now protected from Dacian raids? Cf. Lepper and Frere 1988:88.<br />Scene 40 depicts the second major battle scene on the Column: In casts 101-103 Roman auxiliaries bind prisoners and in the foreground the wounds of Roman legionaries are being tended in the field. Cast 104 shows a prisoner being brought to Trajan. Carroballistae are rolling up to the line of battle in the background. An extended battle takes place in casts 105-109. At the far right Roman cavalry pursues Dacians in retreat.<br />From casts #98-99 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XXIX-XXXII, scenes 39-40 and Coarelli Pls. 40-45. Ref: RBU2011.7060-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_40-41_xxix-xxx_xxxix_7061-adj-web.jpg]25490TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XXXIX (scene 39)
Scene 39/XXXIX: While a Roman fort is under construction (note the blocks in the background and the partial view of a Roman legionary on the right), a line of civilians, including children, approach. Their outstretched hands indicate either submission or thanks -- depending who they are: Dacians expressing submission? The inhabitants of Moesia who are expressing their gratitude for being saved from Dacian raids? Note the girl at center-right who seems to be "floating" in mid-air.<br />From cast 99 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 39 and Coarelli Pls. 40-41. Ref: RBU2011.7061
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_40-41_xxix-xxx_xxxix_7062-web.jpg]23391TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XXXIX (scene 39)
Scene 39/XXXIX: While a Roman fort is under construction (note the blocks in the background), a line of civilians, including children, approach. Here a bearded man carries a child on his shoulders while a woman looks back at the pair and cradles an infant. <br />From casts 98-99 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XXIX and XXX, scene 39 and Coarelli Pls. 40-41. Ref: RBU2011.7062
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_41_xxx_xxxix_7063-web.jpg]21630TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XXXIX (scene 39)
Scene 39/XXXIX: Trajan, with three officers, receives an embassy of Dacian nobles ("pileati"). The reception appears to be taking place in a partially-completed Roman fort.<br />From casts 99-100 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 39 and Coarelli Pl. 41. Ref: RBU2011.7063
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_41_xxx_xxxix_7064-web.jpg]20460TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XXXIX (scene 39)
Scene 39/XXXIX: Detail view of Trajan receiving an embassy of Dacian noblemen ("pileati"). Trajan. flanked by two officers, extends his right hand to the Dacians.<br />From casts 99-100 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 39 and Coarelli Pl. 41. Ref: RBU2011.7064
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_img_2034-web.jpg]16340TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 40)
Scene 40/XL: The central composition of this long battle scene: Roman auxiliaries are being treated for injuries on the left. Trajan receives a Dacian prisoner in the foreground, center, while carroballistae are wheeled into position in the background. The hulls of a pontoon bridge are visible above from Scene 48/XLVIII. Below, the top of another naval scene, nos. 34/XXXIV-35/XXXV. From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl. 31/XXXI. RBU2013.2034.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_42-43_xxxi_xl_7072-web.jpg]19910TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40)
Scene 40/XL: Trajan receives a Dacian Prisoner. Behind the emperor, two cornicens stand ready.<br />From cast 104 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pls. 42-3. Ref: RBU2011.7072
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_trajans_column_1982-247-xl-web.jpg]9950RAJAN'S COLUMN XL (scene 40)
Scene 40/XL in situ: Closer view of the relief taken from scaffolding. Trajan receives a Dacian Prisoner.<br />RBU1982.247
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_42_xxx-xxxi_xl_7067-web.jpg]19422TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX-XXXI/XL (scene 40): Wounded Soldiers
Scene 40/XL: Roman soldiers help their wounded comrades. In the field of battle, a wounded Roman legionary and a wounded auxiliary receive first aid from two medici in auxiliary dress. The medicus helping the wounded auxiliary on the right is holding a roll of bandages in his hand (Rossi 1971: 152). Rossi interprets the scene to indicate that both legionaries and auxiliaries (the latter a cavalryman?) were wounded in the battle (id.). This is the only scene on the Column that depicts wounded Roman soldiers (cf. Settis 1988: 121).<br />From cast 103, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pls. XXX-XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 42. Ref: RBU2011.7067
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_img_3752-40-detail-web.jpg]15480TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX-XXXI/XL (scene 40): detail of wounded Romans
Scene 40/XL (detail): Wounded Roman soldiers are bandaged with field dressings.<br />From the Column in situ.<br />RBU2013.3752
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_40-1000110-web.jpg]17720TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX-XXXI/XL (scene 40): Helping the Wounded
Scene 40/XL: Roman soldiers help a wounded comrade. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXX-XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 42. Ref: RBU2012.1000110.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_42_xxx_xl_7068-web.jpg]18850TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XL (scene 40)
Scene 40/XL: Roman auxiliaries are shown binding Dacian captives. The latter are shown seated or kneeling on the ground with their arms tied behind them. At the top left a Dacian is pushed along by a soldier who grasps his hair.<br />From cast 101 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 42. Ref: RBU2011.7068
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_42_xxx_xl_7069-web.jpg]17430TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXX/XL (scene 40): detail
Scene 40/XL: Roman auxiliaries push a Dacian captive forward.<br />From cast 101, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXX, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 42. Ref: RBU2011.7069
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_43_xxxi_xl_7074-web.jpg]17420TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40): Detail of Trajan
Scene 40/XL: Trajan, facing right, receives a Dacian Prisoner. Behind the emperor stands an officer who may be the legate Lucinius Sura (Coarelli 2000: 87). Further back, two cornicens and a standard bearer stand ready.<br />From cast 104 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 43. Ref: RBU2011.7074
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_img_3751-scene40-web.jpg]17900TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40)
Scene 40/XL: Actual relief as visible on the Column. Trajan receives a Dacian captive. In the background, a carroballista drawn by a pair of mules is moved into position. The horns below (tubae) are ready to signal for action.<br />From the Column of Trajan in Rome. RBU 2013.3751<br />Rossi (1971: 152).
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_43_xxxi_xl_7075-web.jpg]17240TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40): carroballista
Scene 40/XL: The battle scene includes a depiction of cart-borne artillery (a carroballista), manned by a Roman legionary.<br />From cast 104 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 43. Ref: RBU2011.7075
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_43_xxxi_xl_7076-web.jpg]16810TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40): standard bearer
Scene 40:/XL A Roman standard bearer is visible behind the cornicens and the emperor.<br />From cast 104 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pl. 43. Ref: RBU2011.7076
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_43-44_xxxi_xl_7073-web.jpg]17091TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXI/XL (scene 40): Dacian collapse
Scene 40/XL: at the climax of the battle Roman soldiers surround the Dacians, whose line collapses and who are forced to begin withdrawal.<br />From casts 105-6 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXI, scene 40 and Coarelli Pls. 43-44. Ref: RBU2011.7073.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_44-45_xxxii_xl_7078-web.jpg]17140TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXII/XL (scene 40): Cavalry
Scene 40/XL: Roman triumph. While the Roman cavalry rides over their Dacian opponents in the upper half of the frieze, Roman soldiers finish off the enemy in the foreground.<br />From casts 108-109 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXII, scene 40 and Coarelli Pls. 44-5. Ref: RBU2011.7078.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_45_xxxii_xl-xli_7079-web.jpg]17010TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXII/XLI (scene 41): Retreat
Scene 41/XLI: After the major battle depicted in Scene 40, the Dacians flee. The scene is rendered briefly; the visual message is clear. Note the heap of collapsed Dacians in the foreground of cast 110. <br />From cast 110 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXII, scene 41 and Coarelli Pl. 45. Ref: RBU2011.7079.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_45_xxxii_xli_7080-web.jpg]16400TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXII/XLI (scene 41): Detail
Scene 41/XLI: Detail of collapsed Dacians in the foreground of cast 110. <br />From cast 110 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXII, scene 41 and Coarelli Pl. 45. Ref: RBU2011.7080.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_46_xxxiii_xlii_7081-web.jpg]17100TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII/XLII (scene 42)
Scene 42/XLII: Composite image from two photographs. Trajan addresses his victorious troops (see images from the previous episodes, especially scene 40). In the foreground stand the auxiliaries, some of their backs are towards us, enhancing the viewer's perspective of "being there." The cavalry stands to the left. Praetorian and legionary standards form a dramatic backdrop on the right side.<br />From casts 111-113, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIII, scene 42 and Coarelli Pl. 46. Ref: RBU2011.7081-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_46_xxxiii_xlii_7083-adj-web.jpg]16110TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII/XLII (scene 42): detail of adlocutio
Scene 42/XLII: Detail of Trajan addressing his victorious troops.At the center: eagle standards.<br />From cast 112, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIII, scene 42 and Coarelli Pl. 46. Ref: RBU2011.7083
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_46_xxxiii_xlii_7084-adj-web.jpg]15811TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII/XLII (scene 42): standard-bearers
Scene 42/XLII: Detail of standard-bearers listening to Trajan.<br />From cast 112, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIII, scene 42 and Coarelli Pl. 46. Ref: RBU2011.7084
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_47_xxxiii_xliii_7085-composite-web.jpg]17330TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII-XXXIV/XLIII-XLV (scenes 43-45): composite
Composite image of scenes 43-45.Scene 43: Dacian prisoners are shown inside a Roman fort built of turf blocks, guarded by an auxiliary. The single tent represents housing for the soldiers in the encampment.Scene 44: Trajan rewards his men. An auxiliary kisses Trajan's hand while another behind him goes off with his reward. In the foreground of cast 115, two soldiers embrace.Scene 45: The torture of Roman(?) prisoners. Nude men are being tortured by women. Are these Roman soldiers being tortured by Dacian widows? Or Dacians being tortured by widows of the Moesian raid? (cf. Gauer 1977: 17).<br />From casts #114-117 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXIII-XXXIV, scenes 43-45 and Coarelli Pls. 47-48. Ref: RBU2011.7085-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_47_xxxiii_xliii_7085-web.jpg]16900TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIII/XLIII (scene 43): Dacian Prisoners
Scene 43/XLIII: Dacian Prisoners are held in a Roman fort, guarded by an auxiliary. Several appear to be of high rank (pilleati); "they represent the fruit of victory" (Rossi 1971: 154). The building to the left with the barred window may represent the prison (Coarelli 2000: 91; contrast Richmond 1935: 29, who sees this as an example of window glass).<br />From cast 114, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. <br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIII, scene 43 and Coarelli Pl. 47. Ref: RBU2011.7085
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_44-45-rbu2015_5468-web.jpg]9100TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV-XLV (scenes 44-45): Reward and Torture
Scenes 44-45/XLIV-XLV: On the northwest side of the Column, Trajan, seated, rewards his men for service. Here one soldier bends to kiss the emperor's right hand. Another pair of soldiers embrace at the lower left. The next Scene, 45/XLV, is presented in stark contrast to the preceding one: men stripped of their clothes are suffering torture at the hands of women. This scene has been traditionally interpreted as the torture of Roman prisoners.<br />From the Column in situ. Ref. RBU2015.5468.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_48_xxxiv_xliii_7088-web.jpg]17680TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV/XLIV (scene 44): Trajan rewards a loyal soldier
Scene 44/XLIV: A soldier kisses his emperor's hand in gratitude for his reward. Trajan himself is seated on his camp chair, the sella castrensis (Rossi 1971: 154).<br />From cast 116, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIV, scene 44 and Coarelli Pl. 48. Ref: RBU2011.7088
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_48_xxxiv_xliv_7093-web.jpg]19490TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV/XLIV (scene 44): Embrace of Soldiers
Scene 44/XLIV: Two Roman auxiliaries embrace after battle -- and presumably they have just received their rewards from the emperor. Rossi speculates that these may have included the gift of citizenship (1971: 156).<br />From cast 115, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIV, scene 44 and Coarelli Pl. 48. Ref: RBU2011.7093
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_48_xxxiv_xliv_7091-web.jpg]19940TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV/XLV (scene 45) : Detail of Torture Scene
Scene 45/XLV: a bound prisoner is tortured with a torch brandished by a female.<br />From cast 117, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIV, scene 45 and Coarelli Pl. 48. Ref: RBU2011.7091
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes39-45/thumbs/thumbs_48_xxxiv_xlv_7090-web.jpg]21510TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV/XLV (scene 45): Torture
Scene 45/XLV: torture of prisoners. Dacian(?) women torture Roman(?) prisoners.<br />From cast 117, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIV, scene 45 and Coarelli Pl. 48. Ref: RBU2011.7090