Trajan's Column: Scenes 1-5: Preparations for War

The first five scenes on the Column of Trajan depict Roman soldiers on the banks of the Danube River, poised to begin their attack on Dacian soil. This group of scenes ends with the crossing of the Roman Army over the Danube River.

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_1-28-se_2098-web.jpg]16.8k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: southeast side
The first three spirals from the southeast "facade" of the Column that faces the Basilica Ulpia and the Forum of Trajan. This is also the side that carries the dedicatory inscription (on the pedestal, just below the image). The blue arrow at the bottom right indicates the beginning of the narrative frieze. The numbers refer to the Cichorius system for identifying individual scenes by number. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2098.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_7804-1-2-web.jpg]14.1k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 1-2)
Scenes 1/I and 2/II: On the northwest side of the Column on the lowest spiral we see sentries and watchtowers on the left, then the loading up of boats along the riverbank. This is the main axis of the Column from the entrance to the forum complex on the north side. The opposite (SE) side of the Column faces the Basilica Ulpia and carries the dedicatory inscription on the pedestal. Above we see a scene of sacrifice (suovetaurilia) and the portent of the man falling from his horse (Scene 9/IX). From the Column in situ. RBU2013.7804.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_river-scene-1-3-web.jpg]63531TRAJAN'S COLUMN: The River Danube: First Spiral on Trajan's Column
The first events of the first campaign, corresponding to most of Scene I, all of Scene II, and the beginning of Scene III of the Cichorius system. The view is towards the south bank of the Danube, as Trajan's army prepares cross over the river in Dacian territory. From the left: sentries wearing full capes stand between signal towers from which torches protrude. Further on river boats are loaded with bales and barrels against a backdrop of gabled buildings, perhaps warehouses, protected by palisade fencing. At the far right a personification of the River Danube rises from the waters to cast a benign eye on the first march of Roman troops, and lend a sense of divine approbation of the scene. A composite image from the Column in situ.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_1_iv_i_6905a-3798-composite-web.jpg]94592TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IV/I: Forts
Scene 1/I: Comparison between the cast (top) in the Museo della Civilta' Romana and the relief in situ (below).<br />Compare to: Cichorius Plate IV, Scene I; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 1, pg. 45.<br />RBU photo 2011.6905 and 2013.3798
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2077-2080-comp-web.jpg]90150TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: I: Sentries
Scene 1/I: Sentries stand alongside signal towers on the Roman side of the Danube at the beginning of the Dacian War in 101 CE. A composite image from the Column in situ. The waves of the river flow below the feet of the soldiers. Woodpiles and haystacks are ready to provide light and smoke for signaling. The window on the left corresponds to the NE axis of the Column.<br />RBU2013.2077-2080
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_1-2_iv-v_1_panorama1_ppt.jpg]16.7k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IV-V/I: Sentries along the Danube (Scene 1)
Scene 1/I: Roman sentries are depicted standing guard along the Roman side of the Danube river.<br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate IV and V, Scene 1; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 2<br />Ref: RBU2011.iv-v_1_panorama1
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_2_v_i_6908a_ppt.jpg]16k3TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/I: Sentries along the Danube
Scene 1/I: Roman sentries are depicted standing guard along the Roman side of the Danube river.<br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate V, Scene 1; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 2<br />Ref: RBU2011.6908
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_3_v_ii_6909a_ppt.jpg]16.8k3TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/II: Loading Ships on the Danube (Scene 2)
Scene 2/II: On the banks of the Danube, outside a fortified village, Roman soldiers load supplies. Here barrels await stacking on the ships. The buildings in the background may be storehouses (horrea; Lepper and Frere (1988: 49). The ship's prow is on the right; the steering rudder on the left.<br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. V, scene 2; Coarelli (2000) Plate 3, pg. 47.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6909
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2050-web.jpg]12.6k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: Loading Ships on the Danube (Scene 2)
Scene 2/II: Roman soldiers load barrels on to river-craft. A signal tower is visible to the left. The omen of Scene 9 is partially visible above.From the Column in situ. Compare Cichorius Pl.V. RBU2013.20150.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_3_v_ii_6910a_ppt.jpg]15.1k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/II: Detail: barrels (Scene 2)
A detail of barrels in Scene 2/II of the Column of Trajan.<br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6910
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_3_v_ii_6911_ppt.jpg]14.9k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/II: Loading Ships on the Danube
Scene 2/II: On the banks of the Danube, outside a fortified village, Roman soldiers load supplies. Barrels are loaded on the left; baled dry goods on the right. The buildings in the background may be storehouses (horrea; Lepper and Frere (1988: 49). <br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome. <br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. V, scene 2; Coarelli (2000) Plate 3, pg. 47.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6911
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_3_v_ii_6912_ppt.jpg]14.7k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN: V/II: Loading Ships on the Danube (Scene 2)
Scene 2/II: On the banks of the Danube, outside a fortified village, Roman soldiers load supplies. An unmanned ship is stacked with dry goods. The buildings in the background may be storehouses (horrea; Lepper and Frere (1988: 49). <br />Cast from the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. V, scene 2; Coarelli (2000) Plate 3, pg. 47.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6912
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2023-web.jpg]12.4k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 3-4): The Danube
Scenes 3/III-4/IV: The last of the Roman ships to be loaded with barrels is docked on the left side of the image (Scene 3/III). In the center (Scene 4/IV), Danuvius, the personification of the River Danube, rises from the riverbed and sees a group of Roman soldiers moving through a gateway. Although the frieze is damaged at the bottom, it is possible to make out the river god's thumb: part of a divine hand that once steadied the Roman ships.From the Column in situ. Comparable to Cichorius Pls. 6/VI and 7/VII. RBU2013.2023.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_4_vi_iii_6913_ppt.jpg]14.8k1TRAJAN'S COLUMN: VI/III: The River Danube
Scene 3/III: In the center, Danuvius, the personification of the River Danube, rises from the riverbed and sees a group of Roman soldiers moving through a gateway.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome. Compare: Cichorius Plate VI, scene 3; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 4.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6913<br />
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_4_vi_iii_6914_ppt.jpg]15.1k0TRAJAN'S COLUMN: VI/III: The River Danube (Scene 3 detail)
Scene 3/III: Detail of a personification of the Danube River (Danuvius) on the Column of Trajan.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. VI, scene 3; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 4. Link to <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/uploads/IMG_2023hdr-web.jpg">relief in situ</a>.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6914
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_4_vii_iv_6915_ppt.jpg]14.6k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN: VII/IV: Roman Troops Cross the Danube (Scene 4)
Scene 4/IV (detail): In 101 CE, Roman troops, carrying their kit over their shoulders, depart from the town gate (or a fortress gate) and start over a pontoon bridge as the personification of the river, Danuvius, looks on. On the right, a legate stands and looks back towards his men. Presumably we are looking at the south bank of the River Danube; the crossing over to the north shore marks the Roman incursion to the Dacian side. The exact point of departure on the Danube has not been resolved.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6915
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2025-web.jpg]12.2k3TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (SCENES 4-5): Crossing the Danube
Scenes 4/IV-5/V: Roman legionaries distinguished by the wearing of the <i>lorica segmentata</i> cross the River Danube on two parallel pontoon bridges (the second bridge is just visible on the right side of the image; this forms Cichorius's rather arbitrary division between the two scenes). Their helmets are attached to their right shoulders. Each carries his kit on a long javelin, or pilum. A simple pile bridge is visible at the top; this belongs to a construction scene, no. 12/XII. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2025.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_img_2098-cropped-web.jpg]12.1k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 5): FIRST MARCH
SCENE 5/V: Having crossed the pontoon bridges, the army continues its march in the direction of a tribunal and a council of war (Trajan, in his first certain appearance, can be seen seated on the far right). The window visible at the bottom of the photo marks the SE axis of the Column (aligned with the long axis of the forum). From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2098.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes1-5/thumbs/thumbs_5_cichorius_viii_v_ppt.jpg]14.8k2TRAJAN'S COLUMN: VIII/V: First March
Scene 5/V (plaster cast): Although Cichorius divided the river-crossing scene (#4) from this marching scene (#5), it seems likely that the action continues smoothly from bridge to land. Although some have suggested that the figure just setting foot on enemy territory is Trajan himself, it seems more likely that the first appearance of the emperor is being reserved for the next scene. Public domain image from <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Trajan%27s_Column_-_Cichorius_Plates/">Wikimedia</a>.

Trajan's Column: Scenes 6-21: Trajan's First Campaign

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3368-scene-vi-in-situ-web.jpg]39731TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: Scene 6/VI in context
Trajan appears seated for a war council in Scene 6/VI, here highlighted on the east side of the Column (northeast axis is indicated by the line of two visible windows. Above the emperor is a forestry scene (15/XV). The great battle of Scene 24/XXIV occupies the visible surface of spiral no. 4. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.3368.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_7_viii-ix_vi_6916_ppt.jpg]64481TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VI (Scene 6): A Council of War
Scene 6/VI: Trajan appears seated (middle) on a high tribunal made of squared blocks . . . rendered conventionally as if made from stone. He is flanked by two officers. He is probably reviewing the Roman troops marching off to our right. This may be the first time the emperor appears on the Column. Brilliant notes that he is located directly above one of the corner eagles on the pedestal of the Column and faces east, towards both Dacia and the rising sun (1984: 95).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />compare to Cichorius Pl. IX, scene 6; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 7.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6916
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_7_ix_vi_6918_ppt.jpg]58301TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VI (Scene 6): A Council of War
Scene 6/VI: Trajan reviews his troops while seated on a high tribunal, flanked by two high-ranking officers. <br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius, Pl. IX, scene 6; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 7.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6918
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_7_ix_vi_3718-web.jpg]53481TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 6): A Council of War
Scene 6/VI: Trajan (at center) reviews his troops while seated on a high tribunal, flanked by two high-ranking officers. Relief in situ.<br />Compare: Cichorius, Pl. IX, scene 6; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 7. Ref: RBU2013.3718
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_7_ix_vi_6917_ppt.jpg]51330TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VI (Scene 6): A Council of War
Scene 6/VI: An advisor seated to the left of Trajan looks towards the emperor (not visible).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. IX, scene 6; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 7.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6917
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_9876_ppt.jpg]50150TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VI: A Council of War (Scene 6): Trajan
Scene 6/VI: A detail of Trajan in right profile, seated upon his tribunal and reviewing his troops. This is the first certain appearance of the emperor on the Column.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius P. IX, scene 6.<br />Ref: RBU2012.9876.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_composite7-8.jpg]50220TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX-X/VII-VIII (Scenes 7-8)
Scenes 7/VII-8/VIII: A composite image from casts of Trajan's Column. To the left, scene 7, the cavalry moves off. Scene 8 show the first sacrifice scene with priests (A), the emperor making sacrifice before a tent (B) and the preparation for the suovetaurilia (C).<br />Casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates IX and X.<br />Ref: RBU2011.composite7-8
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene-8_6921_composite_ppt.jpg]48830TRAJAN'S COLUMN IX-X/VIII: Lustration and Suovetaurilia (Scene 8)
Scene 8/VIII (composite): The first sacrifice scene on Trajan's Column, Rome.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome. <br />Compare: Cichorius Plates IX and X; Scene 8.<br />Ref: RBU2011.composite6921
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2069-8-web.jpg]34761TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 8): Lustration and Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII: Trajan pours an initial libation (left) as the victimarii lead the pig, ram, and bull to sacrifice. The procession moves around the walls of the camp, led by musicians. The military standards, including the aquila, have been set up at the center of the camp. From the Column in situ.<br />RBU2013.2069
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_8_ix_viii_6922_ppt.jpg]46200TRAJAN'S COLUMN: IX/VIII (Scene 8): Preparation for Sacrifice
Scene 8/VIII: the sacrifice of a boar, a ram, and a bull (not pictured here) to Mars (<a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/?page_id=276 ">suovetaurilia</a>). This type of sacrifice is appropriate for an army on the march. Trajan himself participates in the sacrifice, velate (he stands in the next group to the right, not pictured here). Note the second figure from the left, who appears to be holding a box of incense, and the wreaths of laurel worn in the hair.<br />From a cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. 9, scene 8; Coarelli (2000) Pl. 8.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6922
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_8_x_viii_6923_ppt.jpg]44690TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII (detail): Trajan makes sacrifice, holding a patera (libation dish) over an altar with its flames. A flute-player (the flute is missing, we can see his puffed-out cheeks) stands on the left side of the relief.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6923
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_8_x_viii_6924_ppt.jpg]43242TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII: Detail of attendants at the first suovetaurilia scene (see also scenes 53/LIII and 103/CIII) on Trajan's Column. The right arm and patera of the emperor Trajan are visible over the flames of the altar. The figure with raised hands was originally holding a double flute (probably of metal, long lost). The short figure with long hair is a camillus; in Rome these positions were held by boys; it is possible that on a military campaign slaves were used instead, and the reduced scale might indicate this lowly status.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius plate X, scene 8.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6924
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6925_ppt.jpg]43060TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII: The first suovetaurilia depicted on the Column of Trajan (the rite is also shown in Scenes <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/img_7114-web.jpg">53/LIII</a> and <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes101-110/124_lxxvi_ciii_8158-composite-web.jpg">103/CIII</a>). On the left, Trajan presides over the sacrifice, velate, and holding a patera. At center, a victimarius leads a bull; two other handlers of the sacrifical animals (a ram and a pig) can be seen on the right. A Roman camp spreads off in the background, with Roman tents and military standards.Rome, dedicated 113 CE. The events depicted here took place in 101 CE.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6925
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6926_ppt.jpg]41940TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Suovetaurilia
Scene 8/VIII: Trajan's Column, Suovetaurilia. Detail of a victimarius and the sacrificial bull.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6926
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6929_ppt.jpg]42121TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII: Suovetaurilia (Scene 8)
Scene 8/VIII: Detail of the sacrificial animals being led to sacrifice (Suovetaurilia). A Roman encampment lies behind the wall.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6929
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6928_ppt.jpg]41610TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Roman encampment
Scene 8/VIII: Detail of Roman tents and military standards in the first encampment scene on the Column of Trajan, Rome (dedicated 113 CE).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. X.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6928
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6927_ppt.jpg]41300TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Standards
Scene 8/VIII: Military standards set up in a Roman camp. In the background, tents.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6927
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2053-8-cropped-music-web.jpg]22190TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Musicians
Scene 8/VIII: <i>tubicenes</i> and <i>cornicines</i> sound their horns during the suovetaurilia. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2053.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_8_6930_ppt.jpg]40910TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/VIII (Scene 8): Trumpeters
Scene 8/VIII: a group of trumpeters sound their horns during the sacrifice conducted by the emperor himself (on the far left of the scene; not pictured here). The man who has fallen off his mule in the lower right corner of the photograph belongs to the next scene.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate X, Scene 8<br />Ref: RBU2011.6930
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3824-web.jpg]30000TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scenes 9 and 10)
Scenes 9/IX and 10/X: Back-to-back scenes of the emperor in sequence. On the left (Scene 9), Trajan stands on high ground facing the viewer's left and witnesses the "fallen man" incident. Next (Scene 10) he faces to our right in his first adlocutio scene, standing upon a well-built tribunal to address his men.<br />From the Column in situ. Cf. Cichorius Pls. X-XI and Coarelli Pls. 9 and 10. Ref: RBU 2013:3824
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_9_9881_ppt.jpg]41910TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/IX (Scene 9): Trajan and Fallen Man
Scene 9/IX: A somewhat mysterious event where Trajan (middle, top), gestures towards a man who has fallen off of a mule (Settis's "<i>contadino caduto</i>." 1988: 192). The fallen man appears to be a peasant. What is the round object on the side of the mule, under the left arm of the messenger (if that is what he is)? A large mushroom, in reference to that we hear of through literary sources (Dio lxviii 8.1.) inscribed with a message in Latin? A sieve or other form of cooking utensil? Has the man fallen off of his horse under the spell of the majesty of the emperor? Nobody seems to know for sure.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate X, Scene 9<br />Ref: RBU2012.9881<br />
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_9_9882_ppt.jpg]45380TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/IX: Trajan and Fallen Man (detail of Trajan)
Scene 9/IX: Detail of Trajan and his officers on Trajan's Column. <br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate X, Scene 9<br />Ref: RBU2012.9882
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_9__6931_ppt.jpg]39561TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/IX: Trajan and Fallen Man (detail Scene 9)
Scene 9/IX: Detail of the man who has fallen off his mule on the Column of Trajan. He wears a short tunic and is bare-footed. The pose will be replicated later in the rendering of a fallen Dacian in Scene 94. The figure is vertically aligned with the Winged Victory in Scene 78 and has been interpreted as an omen of future victory over the Dacians (Gauer 1977; Settis 1988: 271).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate X, Scene 9<br />RBU2011.6931
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_9_6931_comparison-web.jpg]37950TRAJAN'S COLUMN X/IX: Fallen Man (detail)
Comparison between the 1860 cast (left) of the fallen man in Scene 9 and the current state (right) of the relief on the Column.Compare Cichorius X, scene 9.<br />Ref: RBU.2011.6931-2013.3726
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2042-web.jpg]24870TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 10)
Scene 10/X: The first adlocutio scene on Trajan's Column, Rome. Note the legionaries wearing the lorica segmentata, a breastplate (cuirass) made of overlapping hoops of iron, most holding the characteristic rectangular shield. To the far right, the beginning of Scene 11/XI, a camp-building scene. From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2042.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_10_6939_composite_ppt.jpg]40120TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X TO XI: Adlocutio (Scene 10)
Scene 10/X (cast): A composite image of the first adlocutio scene on Trajan's Column, Rome. <br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XI, scenes 10 and the beginning of Scene 11.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6939composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_10_6934_ppt.jpg]39600TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X: Detail: first adlocutio (Scene 10)
Scene 10/X (detail): Trajan's Column, Rome. Adlocutio to assembled soldiers.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XI, scene 10.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6934
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2042-sidexside-web.jpg]36820TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X: Detail: first adlocutio (Scene 10)
Scene 10/X: Adlocutio to assembled soldiers. Comparison between the adlocutio scene as it exists now (late 2013) in situ (left) to the cast made in 1860 (right). <br /> Left: RBU photo in situ; Right: Cast #27 in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome. Compare: Cichorius Plate XI, scene 10.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6934-2013.2042.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_10_6935_ppt.jpg]37071TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X: Adlocutio (detail of Trajan, Scene 10)
Scene 10/X Detail of Trajan (on right) addressing his troops in the first adlocutio scene on Trajan's Column. <br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XI, scene 10.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6935
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_scene_10_6937_ppt.jpg]37160TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI/X: Adlocutio (Scene 10; detail: standard-bearers)
Scene 10/X: Detail of the eagle standards depicted in the first adlocutio scene on Trajan's Column. The standard-bearers (sing. aquilifer) wore lion-skin headgear, visible in the two figures partly obscured by their standards.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civilta' Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XI, scene 10.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6937
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_11-12_6944_composite_ppt.jpg]39060TRAJAN'S COLUMN XI-XII/XI-XII: Construction of a Fort: Full view (Scenes 11-12)
Scenes 11/XI-12/XII composite: Cichorius divides the scene shown here into two episodes, both concerning the construction of forts. Scene 11: a fort made of squared blocks (material could be either sod or stone) and timber nearing completion. Scene 12: Trajan surveys the construction project of what seems to be a second fort (the emperor is visible on the far right). The bridge in the middle and the break in the architectural forms suggest that two separate forts are under construction, although others see this as a single scene. Whether one fort or two, the project is not finished. Legionaries take the active role in the actual building. Auxiliaries, like the two figures in the middle, stand guard.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. XI-XII, Scenes 11 and 12.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6944.composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_11-rbu_3729-web.jpg]23672TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 11)
Scene 11/XI: Detail of a fort-building Scene on Spiral #2, southwest side. In the center a solder excavates a trench; his comrade receives the basket of earth. Compare Cichorius Pl. XI, Coarelli, Pl. 11; Lehmann-Hartleben Pl. 9.From the Column in situ. RBU 2013.3729.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_12-rbu_2027-web.jpg]23691TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (Scene 12)
Scene 12/XII; directly above the marching scene that opens the campaign (just visible below), Romans soldiers are at work on a pair of camps. Note the bridge that appears to join the two compounds. To the right, Trajan himself supervises construction. Compare Cichorius Pl. 12; Coarelli Pls. 11-12. RBU2013.2027.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_12_6945_web.jpg]38420TRAJAN'S COLUMN: XII/XII (Scene 12)
Scene 12/XII: Trajan presides over a camp-building scene. The soldiers in the foreground could be cutting sod for the wall (which itself is represented as if of ashlar masonry). Yet no sod blocks are visible . . . perhaps the men are simply digging earth to make a defensive trench in front of the walls.<br />Cast in Museo della Civiltà, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. XII, scene 12<br />Ref: RBU2011.6945
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_13_6947_web.jpg]37280TRAJAN'S COLUMN XII-XIII/XIII (Scene 13)
Scene 13/XIII: Sentries stand in front of a Roman camp. Above/behind the camp a forest-clearing scene anticipates the logging work in scene 15.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà, Rome<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XII-XIII, scene 13.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6947
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3795-web.jpg]29800TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XIV-XV (Scenes 14-15)
Scene 14/XIV dominates this image (15 begins with the forestry scene to the right). Trajan appears to climb towards a hilltop fort that dominates the top of the relief. Two arched doorways are visible. A switchback path moves down the steep slope on the right. Three auxiliaries cross a bridge while a Roman legionary fills a bucket with water from a stream. Taken in situ at the Column of Trajan.<br />RBU2013.3795
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_14_6949_web.jpg]36870TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XIV (Scene 14)
Scene 14/XIV: Trajan, at the upper left, seems to be ascending towards a hilltop fort. The arched gates suggest masonry construction. Wooden watchtowers are built upon the walls, protecting the gates and the corners of the fort. A steep path winds down the hillside from the gate on the right. Three soldiers cross a bridge, while in the foreground a fourth soldier collects water from a stream. Scene 15 begins at the right.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. XIII, scene 14.<br />Ref: RBU 2011.6949
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_14_6950_web.jpg]35600TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XIV (detail, scene 14)
Scene 14/XIV: Three soldiers on a bridge. The seam from the juncture of two column drums cuts across their faces.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIII, scene 14.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6950
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_14_6951_web.jpg]35080TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XIV (Scene 14)
Scene 14/XIV: Close view of a soldier gathering water.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare Cichorius Pl. XIII, scene 14.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6951
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_14-17_6952_composite-web.jpg]36310TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII-XIV (Scenes 14-17)
Composite image of scenes 14, 15, 16, and 17 from Trajan's Column.<br />Casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XIII-XIV, Scene 14-17.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6952_COMP14-17
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_15_3368-scene-xv-web.jpg]20530TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: Scene 15/XV in context
Scene 15/XV, of forest-clearing, is located on the east-northeast face of the column in the third spiral above the War Council Scene (6/VI) and below the great battle of Scene 24/XXIV. Images from the Column in situ. RBU2013.3368.XV
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_15_6952_composite-web.jpg]35980TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII-XIV/XV (Scene 15)
Scene 15/XV (composite): At the center of a forest-clearing scene, two Roman soldiers haul a heavy timber from the forest. Note the pack-mule on the upper right of the image.<br />Casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XIII-XIV, Scene 15.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6952_COMP
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3719-scene15-web.jpg]34911TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIII/XV (Scene 15)
Scene 15/XV: a forest-clearing scene. At the center two Roman soldiers haul a heavy timber from the forest. Metal axes once added to the relief are now lost. Relief sculpture in situ on the Column in the forum of Trajan, Rome.Compare: Cichorius Plates XIII, Scene 15.Ref: RBU2013.3719
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_15-20-rbu2016-web.jpg]5760TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU: SCENES XV-XX (15-20)
Scenes 15-20/XV-XX: From the left: a forest-clearing scene (XV); Fort construction scenes (XVI-XVII); Trajan is presented with a Dacian Prisoner (XVIII); bridge construction (XIX); Trajan supervises fort construction (XX). From the Column in situ. Composite image: RBU2016.6614-25.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_16_6957-web.jpg]35330TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XV (Scene 16)
Scene 16/XVI (detail): Trajan reviews the progress on the construction of a Roman fort. This is the only time Trajan is represented without his short trousers (bracae).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate XIV, scene 16.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6957
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_16_6958_web.jpg]34370TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XVI (Scene 16)
Scene 16/XVI: Detail of the footwear of Trajan and his entourage.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Pl. XIV, scene 16.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6958
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_16_6956-detail-web.jpg]21280TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XVI (Scene 16): Mallets and chisels
Scene 16/XVI (detail): Two Roman soldiers work on the posts of a gate to a camp. Each is a mirror image of his companion. Both hold a mallet in the right hand. The heavy mortising chisel of the figure to the right is clearly visible. It appears that the soldier is cutting a mortise. An object is just visible in the left hand of the left figure. It, too, could be a chisel. Cf. Richmond 1935: 24.<br />From cast 40 now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Compare: Cichorius Pl. XIV, scene 16; Coarelli Pl. 15.Ref: RBU2011.6956
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_17_6959-web.jpg]34740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XVII (Scene 17)
Scene 17/XVII: Detail of a Roman legionary using a mallet and chisel in the construction of a planked palisade outside of a fort. A fine example of Roman tool use.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate XIV, scene 17.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6959
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_18_6960_web.jpg]38340TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV-XV/XVIII (Scene 18)
Scene 18/XVIII: Trajan's reception of a Dacian prisoner dominates the foreground of this scene. The background is filled with walls of a Roman camp, with log-ends in the tops of the sod walls; the entrance is guarded by two legionaries.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plates XIV-XV, scene 18.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6960
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_18_6961-web.jpg]34470TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XVIII (Scene 18, detail)
Scene 18/XVIII (detail): Roman soldiers bring a captive Dacian to the emperor.<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome.<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate XV, scene 18.<br />Ref: RBU 2011.6961
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2062-web.jpg]27440TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XVIII (Scene 18, detail)
Scene 18/XVIII (detail): Roman soldiers bring a captive Dacian to the emperor. Actual image in situ. Compare: Cichorius Plate XV, scene 18.Ref: RBU 2013.2062
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_18_6963-web.jpg]33530TRAJAN'S COLUMN XIV/XVIII (Scene 18, detail)
Scene 18/XVIII: Trajan receives a Dacian prisoner (detail).<br />Cast in the Museo della Civiltà Romana<br />Compare: Cichorius Plate XV, scene 18.<br />Ref: RBU2011.6963
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_18-20_6960-web.jpg]21150TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XVIII-XX (Scenes 18-20)
SCENES 18/XVIII-20/XX: Trajan receives a Dacian prisoner on the far left. In the background soldiers move timber while a soldier-carpenter puts the finishing touches on a gate (note the drill or chisel he holds and the bow or bow-saw that seems to be lying on the ground). In the middle of this photo (Scene 19) a bridge or bridges are being built using timber to make trestles. Scene 20: We see Trajan again, surveying the work that goes on around him. In the foreground legionaries excavate the ground in front of the walls. Richmond (1935) argues that turf for a sod wall is being cut by the men in the foreground. Others lift blocks to the walls, one carries a wall block on a frame that rests on his shoulders.Composite image from casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, EUR, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XV (Scenes 18-20) and Coarelli Pls. 16 and 17. Ref: RBU2011.6960composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_19-21_6964comp-web.jpg]34080TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV-XVI (Scenes 19-21)
Scenes 19/XIX-21/XXI (Composite view). Scene 19: A bridge-building scene (note the legionary crouching in the foreground holding a diagonal brace). The two tall trees at the top of the relief indicate an independent scene here. Scene 20: Fort construction. The fort is being constructed from blocks of sod. Scene 21: In the background we see tents within a fort with walls of sod (despite the improbably arched forms seen in the walls. Two sentries guard the encampment while riders depart over a wooden pile bridge.<br />Compare Cichorius Plates XV and XVI (Scenes 19-21). Casts in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6964composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_19-20-rbu2015_5469-web.jpg]11790TRAJAN'S COLUMN Scene XIX-XX (Scenes 19-20)
Scenes 19-20 (XIX-XX): From the Column in situ, west side: Trajan, standing frontally behind the unfinished wall of a Roman camp (center), supervises the construction of the fortifications. To the left a group of legionaries is occupied with the construction of a bridge. Immediately above the circular zone of damage several soldiers are busy excavating. Their shields rest on the ground; their helmets are supported by javelins.<br />Ref. RBU2015.5469.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_19_6965-web.jpg]33590TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XIX (Scene 19, detail)
Scene 19/XIX: A bridge-building scene: a legionary swings at a chisel(?) or a spike(?) with a mallet.<br />Compare Cichorius Plates XV (Scenes 19); Cast no. 44 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6965.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2057-19-web.jpg]20600TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XIX (Scene 19): Bridge construction
Scene 19/XIX: A bridge-building scene: a legionary swings at vertical post with a mallet. A kneeling soldier steadies the trestle of the bridge under construction.<br />From the Column in situ. RBU2013.2057.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_2045-web.jpg]33370TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XX (Scene 20)
Scene 20/XX: The construction of a Camp. Trajan supervises the construction of a Roman fort made of blocks of turf in this scene photographed directly from the Column. Comparable to Cichorius Pl.XV, scene 20. Ref: RBU2013.2045
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_20_6966-web.jpg]33260TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XX (Scene 20, detail)
Scene 20/XX: Trajan supervises the construction of a fort. Trajan, unusually, is shown here virtually frontal (see comment in Brilliant 1984: 104). The tripartite composition with the emperor taller, centrally positioned, and flanked by officers who turn towards him, will be imitated frequently on the later Column of Marcus Aurelius.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XV (Scenes 20); Cast no. 45 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6966.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_20_6969-web.jpg]33740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XV/XX (Scene 20, detail)
Scene 20/XX: While legionaries construct their camp, shields and helmets are kept close by.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XV (Scenes 20); Cast no. 45 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6969.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_img_3839-web.jpg]23390TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVI (Scene 21)
Scene 21/XXI: Roman tents stand within a sod-built fort. Sentries stand guard at the gate. In the foreground an auxiliary waters his horse while others depart over a pile bridge.<br />From the Column in situ.Compare Cichorius Plate XVI (Scene 21) and Coarelli Pls. 18-19Ref: RBU 2013:3839
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_21_6970-web.jpg]33750TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVI/XXI (Scene 21, detail)
Scene 21/XXI: Roman auxiliary cavalry get ready to mount in front of a Roman fort with sod-built walls.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVI (Scene 21); Cast no. 47 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6970.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_21_6971-web.jpg]33580TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVI/XXI (Scene 21, detail)
Scene 21/XXI: A Roman auxiliary cavalryman gives his horse a drink. Note the well-preserved legionary shield visible on the upper right, with a thunderbolt-and-wing motif (type "L" in Rossi 1971: 109).<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVI (Scene 21); Cast no. 48 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6971.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes6-21/thumbs/thumbs_21_6973-web.jpg]35220TRAJAN'S COLUMN XVI/XXI (Scene 21, detail)
Scene 21/XXI: Two sentries, one (left) a legionary, the other an auxiliary, guard a Roman fort.<br />Compare Cichorius Plate XVI (Scene 21); Cast no. 49 in the Museo della Civiltà Romana. Ref: RBU2011.6973.