Scenes 46-73

Casts 118-190: Trajan's Second Advance (first Dacian War).

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_49_xxxiv-xxxv_xlvi_7094-composite-web.jpg]27770TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV-XXXV/XLVI-XLVIII (scenes 46-48)
Scenes 46/XLVI-48/XLVIII:<br />Scene 46: Trajan is shown in traveling clothes, leaving a city gate; at the moment of his departure he is met by Dacian petitioners who are with Roman guards. <br />Scene 47: There may be no actual division between this scene and the preceding one. In the foreground boats are being loaded for a river voyage or crossing. The two standards may indicate two legions are being readied (Frere/Lepper 1988: 95).<br />Scene 48: Roman soldiers cross a pontoon bridge (casts 121-122), led by an officer.<br />From casts 118-122, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXIV-XXXV, scenes 46-48 and Coarelli Pls. 49-50. RBU2011.7094-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_49_xxxiv-xxxv_xlvi_7096-web.jpg]23290TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV-XXXV/XLVI (scene 46)
Scene 46/XLVI: Trajan, about to embark by water (and hence the traveling garments) is petitioned by "barbarians" (Dacians?) who are escorted by Roman soldiers. The range of hand gestures in the middle of the episode is notable.<br />From casts 118-119, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXIV-XXXV, scene 46 and Coarelli Pl. 49. RBU2011.7096.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_49_xxxv_xlvii_7095-web.jpg]20890TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV/XLVII (scene 47)
Scene 47/XLVII: The vertical line created by a pair of Roman standards signalled to Cichorius a break between Scenes 46 and 47; the two are linked: here Romans prepare for movement by water over the Danube, bringing bales of gear and supplies to waiting ships.<br />From cast 120, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 47 and Coarelli Pl. 49. RBU2011.7095.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxv_xlviii_7097-web.jpg]18440TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIV-XXXV/XLVI (scene 46)
Scene 46/XLVI: The prow of a Roman warship. The ramming beak (rostrum) is clearly visible. The ship awaits the arrival of the emperor. Note the decorative detail of a putto riding on a dolphin.<br />From cast 120, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 46 and Coarelli Pl. 50. RBU2011.7097.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_48-56-rbu2015_5477-web.jpg]9620TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ: XLVIII and LVI (Scenes 48 and 56)
Scenes 48/XLVIII (bottom) and 56/LVI: In the middle of the lower frieze, Roman soldiers cross a river on a pontoon bridge. Above, Dacian heads are impaled upon stakes while Romans clear trees and excavate. Horsemen head out for an assault (above the damaged area) and other troops set fire to Dacian buildings.<br />RBU2015.5477
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxv_xlviii_7099-web.jpg]17610TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV/XLVIII (scene 48): Pontoon Bridge
Scene 48/XLVIII: Standard-bearers and an officer lead a line of troops across a pontoon bridge.<br />From casts 121-122, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 48 and Coarelli Pl. 50. RBU2011.7099.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3754-48-web.jpg]16560TRAJAN'S COLUMN (scene 48): Pontoon Bridge
Scene 48/XLVIII: An officer, flanked by auxiliaries and against a backdrop of standards, leads Roman soldiers across a pontoon bridge. Note how the standards break into the zone of the spiral above. The relief as seen in situ.<br />RBU2013.3754.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxv_xlviii_7100-web.jpg]15540TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV/XLVIII (scene 48): standard-bearers
Scene 48/XLVIII: Standard-bearers lead a line of troops across a pontoon bridge.<br />From casts 121-122, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 48 and Coarelli Pl. 50. RBU2011.7100.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxv_xlviii_7101-web.jpg]15850TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV/XLVIII (scene 48): march
Scene 48/XLVIII: An officer, flanked by auxiliaries and against a backdrop of standards, leads Roman soldiers across a pontoon bridge. The legion is "clearly identifiable as the I Minervia from the image of a ram, held by the imaginifer who leads the formation" (Rossi 1971: 156). Cf. Settis 1988: 330 ("I Minervia pia fidelis, proveniente dalla Germania").<br />From cast 122, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXV, scene 48 and Coarelli Pl. 50. RBU2011.7101.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_51_xxxvi_xlix_7102-7-composite-web.jpg]16120TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI-VII/XLIX-LI (scenes 49-51): composite
Scenes 49/XLIX-51/LI:<br />Scene 49: Three rows of soldiers advance. Foreground: cavalry with their horses. Middle: the infantry. Top: mules and oxen haul baggage. A circular structure (tower?) borders the scene on the right (cast 125).<br />Scene 50: On hilly terrain Trajan receives a group of legionaries who ascend a wooden walkway (cast 126). In the background a hill fort is represented. A twisting mountain path also serves as the right border to this scene.<br />Scene 51: Trajan, with his retinue of reinforcement troops, meets another group of auxiliaries and legionaries. A fortified camp fills the background.<br />From casts 123-129, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXVI-VII, scenes 49-51 and Coarelli Pls. 51-53. RBU2011.7102-7-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_50_xxxvi_xlix_7102-web.jpg]15060TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXV-VI/XLIX (scene 49): cavalry
Scene 49/XLIX: Detail of a auxiliary cavalryman leading his horse.<br />From cast 123, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXV-VI, scene 49 and Coarelli Pls. 50-51. RBU2011.7102
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_51_xxxvi_xlix_7103-web.jpg]14771TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/XLIX (scene 49): Roman march
Scene 49/XLIX: Romans on the march represented in three tiers: Top: baggage carts drawn by mules and oxen; middle: Roman infantry. Bottom: calvarymen walking their horses.<br />From casts 123-124, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 49 and Coarelli Pl. 51. RBU2011.7103
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_52_xxxvi_l_7106-web.jpg]14350TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/XLIX (scene 49): pack mules
Scene 49/XLIX: Mules carry the baggage for Romans on the march.<br />From casts 125-126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 49 and Coarelli Pl. 52. RBU2011.7106
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3816-wp-web.jpg]13110TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50)
Scene 50/L: Top spiral: Trajan receives a messenger above a scene of battle (corresponding to Cichorius Scenes 49-50). Lower spiral: Roman soldiers ride over fallen Dacians (corresponding to Cichorius secenes 40-41) .<br />In the sky: a blurred moon on a clear November day.<br />In situ, Trajan's Column, Rome RBU2013.3816
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_52_xxxvi_xlix_7104-web.jpg]14340TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan and Soldiers
Scene 50/L: Trajan receives a group of legionaries who reach him by means of a wooden walkway.<br />From cast 126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 50 and Coarelli Pl. 52. RBU2011.7104
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3805-web.jpg]12830TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan receives Soldiers
Scene 50/L: On hilly terrain Trajan receives a group of legionaries who ascend a wooden walkway. In the background a hill fort is visible. A zig-zag mountain path also serves as the right border to this scene. Photo from the Column in situ. Compare to cast 26 in Cichorius Pl. XXXVI. RBU2013.3805
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_scene-50-rbu2012_9954-50-web.jpg]2780TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan and Soldiers
Scene 50/L: Trajan receives a group of legionaries who reach him by means of a wooden walkway.From cast 126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 50 and Coarelli Pl. 52. <br />RBU2012.9954
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_52_xxxvi_xlix_7105-web.jpg]13320TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan
Scene 50/L: Trajan, flanked by two officers, greets a group of approaching legionaries.<br />From cast 126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 50 and Coarelli Pl. 52. RBU2011.7105
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_scene-50-rbu2012_9956-web.jpg]2520TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVI/L (scene 50): Trajan and Officers (detail)
Scene 50/L: Trajan receives a group of legionaries; here three views of the emperor with his officers.From cast 126, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVI, scene 50 and Coarelli Pl. 52. RBU2012.9956-58
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7107-det-web.jpg]4890TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): A Fortified Roman Camp
Scene 51/LI: A strongly fortified Roman camp with permanent structures within forms the backdrop to this scene. Watchtowers rise from a wall rendered as if built of cut stone. The main gate, however, is not vaulted but shown with a heavy lintel.<br />From casts 127-128, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7107-det
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_53_xxxvii_li_7107-web.jpg]13410TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): Trajan and Auxiliaries
Scene 51/LI: Trajan, with his retinue of reinforcement troops behind him, meets a group of auxiliaries and legionaries. He wears a cuirass and splendid fringed paludamentum. A fortified camp fills the background.<br />From casts 127-128, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7107.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_53_xxxvii_li_7109-web.jpg]12950TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): Trajan and Auxiliaries (Detail)
Scene 51/LI: Trajan greets a group of auxiliaries A fortified camp forms the backdrop.<br />From cast 128, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7109
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_53_xxxvii_li_7110-web.jpg]13020TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): Roman Standards (detail)
Scene 51/LI: Roman standards in front of a fortified camp (detail). The legionary eagle is shown perched on its pedestal on the right.<br />From cast 128, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7110
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_53_xxxvii_li_7111-web.jpg]13000TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII/LI (scene 51): Standards
Scene 51: Military standards (praetorian signa; cf. Rossi 1971: 106) carried in the group that accompanies the emperor Trajan.<br />From cast 127, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 53. RBU2011.7111
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_54_xxxvii_lii_7112-web.jpg]12950TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVII-VIII/LII (scene 52): Dacian embassy
Scene 52/LI: In the midst of a forestry and camp-building scene, Trajan receives Dacian ambassadors, whose fringed garments draw focus to their presence before the emperor. These are Dacian <i>Comati</i> "proposing terms that the emperor presumably is rejecting" (Lepper and Frere 1988: 100). In the foreground legionaries excavate trenches, removing soil in woven baskets.<br />From casts 130-31, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXVII-VIII, scene 51 and Coarelli Pl. 54. RBU2011.7112
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7114-web.jpg]13934TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVIII/LIII (scene 53): Suovetaurilia
Scene 53/LIII: The second scene of Suovetaurilia on the Column of Trajan. The emperor, velate, performs the initial sacrifice as the sacrificial animals are led around the walls of the camp. Either this is a different camp from that depicted in Scene 51 (Frere and Lepper 1988: 100), or it is the camp shown in the previous scene, now finished (Coarelli 2000: 99).<br />From casts 132-34, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVIII, scene 53 and Coarelli Pl. 55. RBU2011.7114
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7115-web.jpg]13022TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVIII/LIII (scene 53): Sacrifice (detail)
Scene 53/LIII (Suovetaurilia): The emperor, velate, performs the sacrifice. <br />From casts 132-34, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVIII, scene 53 and Coarelli Pl. 55. RBU2011.7115
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7119-web.jpg]12670TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXVIII/LIII (scene 53): Standard-bearers
Scene 53/LIII (Suovetaurilia): Standard-bearers wearing the bearskin hood (pellis) watch Trajan preside over the suovetaurilia. From casts 133-34, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXVIII, scene 53 and Coarelli Pl. 55. RBU2011.7119
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7120-web.jpg]13430TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIX/LIV (scene 54): Adlocutio
Scene 54/LIV: Following the scene of sacrifice in Scene 53, Trajan addresses his troops (adlocutio). In the foreground, auxiliaries, then a group of legionaries in the middle and the standard-bearers forming the background. Lepper-Frere suggest that the compact circular grouping of the scene may be influenced "by the coin types showing such imperial addresses" (1988: 100). From casts 135-36, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIX, scene 54 and Coarelli Pl. 56. RBU2011.7120.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7121-web.jpg]12730TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIX/LIV (scene 54): Adlocutio, detail
Scene 54/LIV: Detail: Trajan addresses his troops (adlocutio). From cast 135, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XXXIX, scene 54 and Coarelli Pl. 56. RBU2011.7121.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7122-web.jpg]15040TRAJAN'S COLUMN XXXIX-XL/LV-LVI (scenes 55-6): Romans on the March
Scenes 55/LV and 56/LVI. The large tree on the right border of cast 137 was regarded by Cichorius as a scene division, considered "plausible" by Lepper and Frere (1988: 101). Scene 55: Roman soldiers begin their advance up a hill.Scene 56: In rough terrain, Roman legionaries clear their way through a forest. Note the roadbed visible under the feet of the soldiers in cast 138. The Dacian heads on the far right of the scene may indicate a captured Dacian fort seen in the background of casts 139 and 140.From casts 137-140, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XXXIX-XL, scenes 55-56 and Coarelli Pls. 57-58. RBU2011.7122-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7123-curle-web.jpg]13840TRAJAN'S COLUMN XL/LVI (scene 56): Roman axemen
Scene 56/LVI: Roman soldiers fell trees using axes. On the right are five examples of actual axes found at the Roman Fort at Newstead in 1911 published by Curle (A Roman Frontier Post and Its People, Glasgow).<br />RBU2011.7123-Curle
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7125-web.jpg]13350TRAJAN'S COLUMN XL/LVI (scene 56): Excavation
Scene 56/LVI: Legionaries at work clearing a forest and building a road. Here a soldier dumps a load of rubble from a wicker basket. His shield and helmet are propped up close by. <br />From cast 140, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XL, scene 56 and Coarelli Pl. 58. RBU2011.7125.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7126-web.jpg]13381TRAJAN'S COLUMN XL-XL/LVII-LIX (scenes 57-59)
Scenes 57/LVII, 58/LVIII, and 59/LIX. <br />Scene 57: Torching of Dacian buildings. A house or watch tower on piles figures prominently at the top of casts 141-142.<br />Scene 58: Trajan crosses a pile bridge with equestrian escorts. The location of the bridge has been postulated as at Robeshti (Cichorius) or the nearby "Pons Vetus" near Cineni (cf. discussion in Lepper/Frere 1988: 102).<br />Scene 59: Dacians watch their buildings being torched.<br />From casts 141-144, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XL-XLI, scenes 57-59 and Coarelli Pls. 58-60. RBU2011.7126-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3789-web.jpg]11210TRAJAN'S COLUMN XL-XL/LVIII-LIX (scenes 58-59)
On the lower of two spirals, scenes 58/LVIII and 59/LIX: Trajan's bridge crossing is just visible to the left. In Scene 59 Roman soldiers torch the planked buildings of the Dacians and the latter watch helplessly. A draco standard flies in the background. Image from the Column in situ. RBU2013.3789.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_60_xli_lix_7129-web.jpg]11010TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLI/LIX (scene 59): Romans torch Dacian buildings
Scene 59/LIX: Dacians appear to look on as Roman soldiers set fire to planked (wooden) buildings.<br />From cast 144, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLI, scene 59 and Coarelli Pl. 60. RBU2011.7129.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7130-composite-web.jpg]11240TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LX-LXI (scenes 60-61): Fort Construction and Embassy
Scenes 60/LX and 61/LXI: Left, Roman legionaries construct a camp as fellow soldiers in the hills beyond (top left) keep guard. On the right (61), within a similar, now-completed fort, Trajan, with four officers (two on the left are wearing helmets) receives a high-born Dacian who has placed his shield on the ground in front of him. From casts 145-148, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scenes 60-61 and Coarelli Pls. 61-2. RBU2011.7130-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7131-web.jpg]10680TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LX (Scene 60)
Scene 60/LX: Detail of Roman legionaries constructing a Roman camp.<br />From cast 146, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scene 60 and Coarelli Pl. 61. RBU2011.7131.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7136-web.jpg]10700TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LXI (scene 61): Reception of a Dacian ambassador
Scene 61/LXI: Trajan, surrounded by four senior officers (the two behind him wear helmets) receives a Dacian nobleman outside the walls of a Roman fort. Coarelli suggests that the two bare-headed officers are meant to represent Licinius Sura and the Praetorian Prefect Claudius Livianus (2000: 106). <br />From cast 147, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scene 61 and Coarelli Pl. 62. RBU2011.7136.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7135-web.jpg]10380TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LXI (scene 61): Trajan receives an ambassador
Scene 61/LXI: Close-up detail of Trajan (center, right profile), surrounded by four senior officers (the two behind him wear helmets). It has been proposed that he two bare-headed officers are meant to represent Licinius Sura and the Praetorian Prefect Claudius Livianus (Coarelli 2000: 106).<br />From cast 147, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scene 61 and Coarelli Pl. 62. RBU2011.7135.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7137-web.jpg]10450TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLII/LXI (scene 61): standard-bearers
Scene 61/LXI: Detail of the trumpeters and standard-bearers who witness a Dacian ambassador who presents himself to Trajan. In the foreground stands a legate. <br />From cast 148, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLII, scene 61 and Coarelli Pl. 62. RBU2011.7137.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7138-43-composite-web.jpg]11300TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIII-XLIV/LXII-LXIII (scenes 62-63): Montain Warfare
Scenes 62/LXII and 63/LXIII. Draft animals (oxen and mules) appear on the left (cast 149) towards a fortification that protects a large tent - headquarters? (casts 150-151). Legionaries are stationed outside of the fortress walls. More legionaries and auxiliaries head into mountainous terrain (casts 152-154). Windowless cylindrical buildings with conical roofs and perhaps skylights create the background: Dacian tombs? Temples? cf. Lepper/Frere 1988: 104. Within this mountain setting the emperor Trajan consults his officers (cast 155).<br />From casts 149-156, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XLIII-XLIV, scenes 62-63 and Coarelli Pls. 64-66. RBU2011.7138-43-composite
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7138-web.jpg]10900TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIII/LXII (scene 62): draft animals
Scene 62/LXII: Detail of oxen and mules carrying supplies. Note the pair at the seam of the drums at the top of the image; their legs were never carved- or they are meant to be seen from behind a rocky outcrop that is perfectly horizontal(!). <br />From cast 149, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIII, scene 62 and Coarelli Pl. 64. RBU2011.7138.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7139-web.jpg]10600TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIII/LXII (scene 62): Roman soldiers
Scene 62/LXII: Detail of three Roman soldiers. The legionary on the left guards the entrance to a Roman fort. Two auxiliaries stand to the right. <br />From casts 151-152, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIII, scene 62 and Coarelli Pl. 64. RBU2011.7139.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7140-web.jpg]10700TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIII/LXII (scene 62): Dacian? structure
Scene 62/LXII: Detail of cylindrical structure. The building has no windows and is apparently illuminated by skylights built into the roof. Possibly a Dacian temple or a tomb? <br />From casts 151-152, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIII, scene 62 and Coarelli Pl. 64. RBU2011.7140.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7143-composite-web.jpg]11390TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV-XLV/LXIV (scene 64): Cavalry Attack
Scene 64/LXIV: As Trajan confers with an officer (left, cast 155), a charging cavalry of Moorish riders in a mountain setting falls upon a Dacian band. The episode has been connected with a literary passage in Dio (67.8.3). The rocky landscape is indicated by a series of ridges. The Dacian standard, the draco, dominates the sky at the top of cast 159. As the scene concludes on the right (casts 159-160), the Dacians take refuge in a forest. A tree on cast 160 separates this long scene from the next.<br />From casts 155-161, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIV-XLV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pls. 67-69. RBU2011.7143-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7144-web.jpg]10530TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV/LXIV (scene 64): Moorish cavalry
Scene 64/LXIV: Detail cavalry "unanimously (so far) identified with the Moorish irregulars" (Lepper/Frere 1988: 105). They ride with no saddles and have long curly hair.<br />From cast 156, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pl. 67. RBU2011.7144.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7145-web.jpg]10470TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV/LXIV (scene 64): Moorish cavalry
Scene 64/LXIV: Detail of two Moorish riders. From casts 155-156, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pl. 67. RBU2011.7145.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7146-web.jpg]10390TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV/LXIV (scene 64): Moor vs. Dacian
Scene 64/LXIV (detail): A Moorish rider confronts a Dacian warrior on foot.<br />From casts 157-158, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pl. 67. RBU2011.7146.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_64_xlv_lxiv_7147-draco-web.jpg]4280TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIV/LXIV (scene 64): Dacian draco
Scene 64/LXIV: Detail of the Dacian draco standard. From cast 159, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIV, scene 64 and Coarelli Pl. 67. RBU2011.7147.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7148-composite-web.jpg]10520TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXV (scene 65): Building Fortifications
Scene 65/LXV: Following flight and refuge by the Dacians into a forest (trees on the far left, cast 160), legionaries construct a fort on hilly ground, a job that requires the excavation of a trench (vallum) in the foreground, at the foot of the walls (Richmond sees the two pairs of excavators in a rivalry with one another; 1935: 22). One soldier uses a mallet to pound on a vertical support. A band of auxiliaries approaches from the left. <br />From casts 160-163, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI, scene 65 and Coarelli Pls. 69-70. RBU2011.7148-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_65-rbu2016_6805-65-web.jpg]400TRAJAN'S COLUMN in situ (LXV): Building Fortifications
The camp-building scene LXV.<br />From the Column in situ.<br />RBU2016.6805.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7150-web.jpg]10170TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXV (scene 65): Soldiers at work
Scene 65/LXV (detail): Two legionaries at work on fortifications.<br />From cast 161, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI, scene 65 and Coarelli Pl. 70. RBU2011.7150
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7151-composite-web.jpg]10910TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI-XLVIII/LXVI (scene 66): Major Battle
Scene 66/LXVI (Composite from seven photographs): In cast #164 Trajan, flanked by officers, receives two Dacians, the one nearest the emperor bends to take (and kiss?) his hand. In the foreground a mule pulls an artillery cart. Meanwhile legionaries prepare heavy fortifications, including basements for ballistae. The crowded Roman soldiers await the signal to attack (#166). Note the slinger in the foreground of cast #167. In casts #168-169 the battle is at full height. The Dacians emerge from a wooded area. The Dacians also appear to have a ballista seen in the top of cast #169. In cast #170 Dacians are cutting trees, presumably to reinforce their position.<br />From casts #163-170, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XLVI-XLVIII, scene 66 and Coarelli Pls. 71-74. Ref: RBU2011.7151-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_66-rbu2011_7151-cart-web.jpg]4300TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI-XLVIII/LXVI (scene 66): Detail of a carroballista
Scene 66/LXVI: Detail of a carroballista, including the wheeled cart and mule.<br />From casts #163-164, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI, scene 66, and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7151-det..
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7153-web.jpg]10240TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXVI (scene 66): Trajan receives Dacians
Scene 66/LXVI: Trajan, outside a fortress and flanked by officers, receives two Dacians wearing loose caps (pileati), the one closest to the emperor bends to take (and kiss?) his hand.<br />From cast #164, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7153.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7157-web.jpg]10050TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXVI (scene 66): Trajan receives a Dacian
Scene 66/LXVI: Trajan, outside a fortress and flanked by officers, receives one of two Dacians, who bends to take (and kiss?) his hand.<br />From cast #164, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7157.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_71-72_xlvi-xlvii_lxvi_7153-detb-web.jpg]5180TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVI/LXVI (scene 66): Tents and artillery
Scene 66/LXVI: Detail of tents (upper left, behind the walls), gateway construction, and ballistae (upper right) in defensive positions at a Roman camp. <br />From cast #164, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVI scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7153.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7153-adze-axe-web.jpg]9740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (Scene 66): Woodcraft
Scene 66/LXVI: detail of a soldier working on a fallen log. The tool appears to be an adze, or a combination adze-axe. Using this tool the log can be trimmed and roughly squared.<br />From cast 165, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 71. Ref: RBU2011.7153.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_72_xlvii_lxvi_7155-web.jpg]10290TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Soldiers at the ready
Scene 66/LXVI: Roman legionaries in full battle dress await the order to attack.<br />From cast #166, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7155.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_trajans_column_1982-246-lxvi-web.jpg]6210TRAJAN'S COLUMN LXVI (scene 66): Soldiers in situ
Scene 66/LXVI: Detail view of Roman legionaries and their offensive emplacements. Taken from scaffolding on site.<br />RBU1982.246
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_72_xlvii_lxvi_7156-web.jpg]10170TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Ballista
Scene 66/LXVI: Roman legionaries ready a ballista on a fortified position.<br />From cast #166, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7156.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_73_xlvii_lxvi_7160-web.jpg]10180TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Slingsman
Scene 66/LXVI: A soldier fighting on the Roman side holds a sling at ready in his hand. Extra ammunition hangs from his chest.<br />From cast #167, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7160.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_73_xlvii_lxvi_7162-web.jpg]9870TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Romans Attack
Scene 66/LXVI: Close-up detail of Roman soldiers rushing headlong into battle.<br />From cast #167, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7162.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_73_xlvii_lxvi_7161-web.jpg]9940TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVII/LXVI (scene 66): Eastern Archers
Scene 66/LXVI: Roman allied archers, wearing full body armor and conical hats, join in battle against the Dacians.<br />From cast #167, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 72. Ref: RBU2011.7161.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7163-web.jpg]9720TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII/LXVI (scene 66): Artillery
Scene 66/LXVI: It appears that two Dacians have managed to acquire a ballista in this scene - perhaps a captured Roman weapon? <br />From cast #169, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 73. Ref: RBU2011.7163.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7165-web.jpg]9740TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII/LXVI (scene 66): Dacian standards
Scene 66/LXVI: Dacians with a draco standard and a vexillum (captured from the Romans?) watch their comrades fall in this epic battle scene.<br />From cast #170, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 66 and Coarelli Pl. 74. Ref: RBU2011.7165.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7166-composite-web.jpg]9901TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII-XLIX/LXVII-LXVIII (scene 67-68): composite
Scenes 67-68/LXVII-LXVIII. In scene 67 (casts 171-172) Dacians in the wake of the great battle of Scene 66 hastily fell trees and construct a palisade, behind which is a prominent building (a sanctuary? A flat-roofed gate tower? Cf. Lepper/Frere 1988: 105). An imposing building in the background, on a rocky ridge, may be the palace of Decebalus at Sarmizegethusa (Coarelli 2000: 119), or an important fortified stronghold nearby. In a scene with a parallel theme (68) marked clearly by a pair of trees, Roman legionaries work to construct a Roman fort. Meanwhile (cast 174) the emperor, surrounded by his officers, receives a Dacian prisoner, one of the pileati, who is pulled towards the emperor by flanking auxiliaries.<br />From casts 171 - 175, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. XLVIII-XLIX scenes 77-68 and Coarelli Pls. 75-76. Ref: RBU2011.7166-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7167-web.jpg]9350TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII/LXVII (scene 67): Dacian Priest?
Scene 67/LXVII: A "dignified" looking Dacian stands in a rocky setting, behind a palisade in the foreground. Perhaps he is a priest, and the scene records the capture of a Dacian sanctuary? (Cf. Lepper/Frere 1988: 105).<br />From cast #172, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 67 and Coarelli Pl. 75. Ref: RBU2011.7167.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7168-web.jpg]9090TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLVIII/LXVII (scene 67): A Dacian axeman
Scene 67/LXVII: Detail of a Dacian wielding an axe or hatchet to chop at a tree in order to build a palisade.<br />From cast #171, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 67 and Coarelli Pl. 75. Ref: RBU2011.7168.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7169-web.jpg]8860TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXVIII (scene 68): Soldier-Builders
Scene 68/LXVIII (detail): Roman legionaries engaged in the requisite activities of a camp-building scene (from the bottom): a soldier carries a beam of wood on his shoulder, a soldier wields an axe, or, possibly, an adze-axe; two soldiers position blocks (or turves, according to some) for building a wall.<br />From casts 173, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIX scene 68 and Coarelli Pl. 76. Ref: RBU2011.7169.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7173-web.jpg]9400TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXVIII (scene 68): Trajan receives a prisoner
Scene 68/LXVIII: Trajan, surrounded by four officers, receives a Dacian prisoner of noble rank (a pileatus).<br />From casts 174-5, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIX scene 68 and Coarelli Pl. 77. Ref: RBU2011.7173.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7174-web.jpg]9250TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXVIII (scene 68): Roman auxiliaries
Scene 68/LXVIII: Five Roman auxiliaries. Contrast the shields they carry to those of the legionaries resting on the ground at the lower right.<br />From casts 174-5, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLVIII scene 67 and Coarelli Pl. 76. Ref: RBU2011.7174.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7172-composite-web.jpg]9590TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXIX (scene 69): Clearing the forest
Scene 69: Roman legionaries clear the forest in preparation for an attack. Axes must have been added as metal attachments that are now lost. Note the line of auxiliaries who march along the top of the relief, in the background. The action shifts abruptly to the right, where a full-scale attack begins (cast 177, Scene 70).<br />From casts 175-177, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIX, scene 69 and Coarelli Pls. 77-78. Ref: RBU2011.7172-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7172-web.jpg]9480TRAJAN'S COLUMN XLIX/LXIX (scene 69): Axemen
Scene 69/LXIX (detail): Roman legionaries clear the forest in preparation for an attack. Axes must have been added as metal attachments that are now lost. From casts 175-176, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. XLIX, scene 69 and Coarelli Pl. 77. Ref: RBU2011.7172.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_78_l_lxx_7176-composite-web.jpg]10661TRAJAN'S COLUMN L-LI/LXX-LXXI (Scenes 70-71): Attack on a Dacian Stronghold
Scenes 70-71From casts 177 - 182, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. L-LI scenes 70-71 and Coarelli Pls. 78-81. Ref: RBU2011.7176-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_2105-70-75-cropped-web.jpg]8690TRAJAN'S COLUMN IN SITU (scenes 70/LXX and 75/LXXV)
70/LXX and 75/LXXV: The furious battle of scene 70/LXX on spiral 10 (below) contrasts with the Dacian surrender scene (75/LXXV) on spiral 11 (above). The window marks the southeast axis of the Column, aligned with the main axis of the basilica and forum complex. From the Column in situ: RBU2013.2105.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_78_l_lxx_7177-web.jpg]10970TRAJAN'S COLUMN L/LXX (Scene 70): detail
Scenes 70/LXX: Romans bringing up the rear) and their allies (the former shown with oval shields and bare chests- clibanarii- attack the Dacians, stepping over the bodies of the fallen enemy in the foreground.From casts 177-178, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. L, scene 70 and Coarelli Pl. 78. Ref: RBU2011.7177.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7181-web.jpg]10862TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXI (Scene 71): testudo formation
Scene 71/LXXI: Detail of a Roman testudo formation. Legionaries create a unified shell of shields above their heads and around their bodies as they attack a Dacian stronghold.<br />From casts 181-2, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LI, scene 71 and Coarelli Pl. 80. Ref: RBU2011.7181.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3793-testudo-web.jpg]10320TRAJAN'S COLUMN (Scene 71): testudo in situ
The testudo formation of Scene 71/LXXI as it appeared on the Column in late 2013.RBU2013.3793
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7182-web.jpg]10120TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXI (Scene 71): A fallen Dacian
Scenes 71/LXXI: Detail of a fallen Dacian warrior.<br />From casts 180-181, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LI, scene 71 and Coarelli Pl. 80. Ref: RBU2011.7182.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7183-composite-web.jpg]10320TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI-LII/LXXII (Scene 72): Final Battle
Scene 72/LXXII: The last battle of the First Dacian War. Composite image. In cast 183 the emperor stands on high ground to survey the battle before him. Auxiliary troops are involved with the heavy fighting (casts 185-187) while legionaries stand in reserve (184). Two auxiliaries display severed heads to the emperor. Note the Balearic holding a sling in cast 185. Dacians collapse on the ground in casts 186 and 187.<br />From casts 183-187, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. LI-LII, scene 72 and Coarelli Pls. 81-83. Ref: RBU2011.7183-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7185-web.jpg]10240TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXII (Scene 72): Dacian Trophies
Scene 72/LXXII: Trajan is presented with trophies in the form of severed heads of Dacian warriors by his auxiliary troops.<br />From cast 183, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LI, scene 72 and Coarelli Pl. 81. Ref: RBU2011.7185.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_72-rbu2012_0005-web.jpg]5360TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXII (Scene 72): Trajan and an Officer
Scene 72/LXXII: Close view of Trajan and the officer who stands to his left (viewer right) as they are being presented with the severed heads of Dacians.<br />From cast 183, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LI, scene 72 and Coarelli Pl. 81. Ref: RBU2012.0005.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7188-web.jpg]9750TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXII (Scene 72): Rocks as weapons
Scene 72/LXXII: Alongside the legionaries an allied fighter prepares to throw a rock. He is probably armed with a sling, although the stance suggests nothing less than rock-throwing.<br />From cast 185, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LII, scene 72 and Coarelli Pl. 82. Ref: RBU2011.7188.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_7189-web.jpg]9670TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI/LXXII (Scene 72): Dacian despair
Scene 72/LXXII: The last battle of the First Dacian War goes badly for the Dacians and a cloaked native thows his hands out in despair.<br />From cast 186, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LII, scene 72 and Coarelli Pl. 82 and 83. Ref: RBU2011.7189.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_img_3822-web.jpg]9650TRAJAN'S COLUMN LI-LII/LXXII-LXXIII (Scenes 72-73)
Scenes 72-73/LXXII-LXXIII: There is a stark contrast between the fight raging in Scene 72 (left) and the camp construction scene that dominates Scene 73. Note the slender tree that acts as a divider. Trajan, in the midst of three officers, dominates the latter scene as he stands on the ramparts and supervises the project.<br />From the Column in situ. Compare Coarelli Pls. 83 and 84. Ref: RBU 2013:3822
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_84_lii_lxxiii_7192-web_0.jpg]9820TRAJAN'S COLUMN LII-LIII/LXXIII (Scene 73)
Scene 73/LXXIII (composite image): Trajan addresses his men within the walls of the camp (adlocutio). In the foreground soldiers work with their axes (dolabrae) on rough timber.<br />From casts 188-190, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. LII-LIII, scene 73 and Coarelli Pl. 84. Ref: RBU2011.7192-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_84_lii_lxxiii_7192-web.jpg]10270TRAJAN'S COLUMN LII/LXXIII (Scene 73): Camp Construction
Scene 73/LXXIII: Trajan addresses his men within the walls of the camp (adlocutio). In the foreground soldiers work with their axes (dolabrae) on rough timber - perhaps to prepare wood for artillery emplacements or to clear a line of fire.<br />From casts 188-89, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. LII-LIII, scene 73 and Coarelli Pl. 84. Ref: RBU2011.7192.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes46-73/thumbs/thumbs_73-rbu2012_0011-web.jpg]5900TRAJAN'S COLUMN LII/LXXIII (Scene 73): Detail of Trajan
Scene 73/LXXIII: Detail of Trajan flanked by his officers. (Scene of adlocutio). <br />From cast 188, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LII, scene 73 and Coarelli Pl. 84. Ref: RBU2012.0011.

scenes74-78

The last episodes of the First Dacian War

[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_85_liii_lxxiv_7197-web.jpg]38830TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIII/LXXIV (Scene 74)
Scene 74/LXXIV: Roman soldiers pause at a spring. In the background, legionaries carry baggage to a cylindrical crenellated structure.From casts 191-192, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIII, scene 74 and Coarelli Pl. 85. Ref: RBU2011.7197.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_85_liii_lxxiv_7198-web.jpg]37610TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIII/LXXIV (Scene 74) (Detail 1)
Detail of Scene 74/LXXIV. Bearded Roman auxiliaries pause to drink from a natural spring in the rocks. Note how well the cast has preserved the texture of the chainmail the auxiliaries wear, as well as the focale scarfs around their necks.<br />From cast 191, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIII, scene 74 and Coarelli Pl. 85. Ref: RBU2011.7198.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_85_liii_lxxiv_7199-web.jpg]37460TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIII/LXXIV (Scene 74) (Detail 2)
Detail of Scene 74/LXXIV. A Roman auxiliary wearing bracae and the lorica hamata holds a horse's bridle as he and his comrades wait to enter a walled structure. Note how his balteus fits underneath his riding cloak.<br />From cast 191, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIII, scene 74 and Coarelli Pl. 85. Ref: RBU2011.7199.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_3758-web.jpg]38000TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): Surrender of the Dacians
Scene 75/LXXV: View of the southeast side of the Column. The emperor Trajan, seated on a raised platform of stone or brick, receives a large group of Dacians who have thrown their shields on the ground in surrender. Decebalus, who stands at the back of the group to the right, cannot be seen from this angle. There will be a final address to his troops, then Trajan ends the First Dacian War.<br />From the Column in situ. Similar to Cichorius Pl. LIV (scene 75). RBU2013.3758
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_86_liv_lxxv_7203-web.jpg]37490TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): Surrender of the Dacians
Scene 75/LXXV: Trajan accepts the surrender of the Dacians. Standard bearers form the background. The Dacian pileati have thrown their shields to the ground and raise their hands to the emperor, who is seated on a tribunal of squared stone or cut turf.<br />From cast 193, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIV, scene 75 and Coarelli Pl. 86. Ref: RBU2011.7203.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_86_0015-web.jpg]35590TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): Trajan Considers Dacian Surrender
Scene 75/LXXV (detail): Close view of the head of Trajan (last figure on the right) as he accepts the surreneder of the Dacians.<br />From cast 193, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIV, scene 75 and Coarelli Pl. 86. Ref: RBU2012.0015.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_86_0016a-web.jpg]35290TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): detail of Trajan
Scene 75/LXXV (detail): Trajan considers the surrender of the Dacians.<br />From cast 193, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LIV, scene 75 and Coarelli Pl. 86. Ref: RBU2012.0016a.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_3809-web.jpg]36280TRAJAN'S COLUMN LIV/LXXV (scene 75): Decebalus Surrenders
Scene 75/LXXV: View of the southeast side of the Column. A prominent Dacian stands upon a rocky outcrop to the viewer's left. He is shown higher than his comrades before him who have thrown down their shields. This figure has been identified as Decebalus himself, one of <a href="http://www.trajans-column.org/?page_id=866">six scenes</a> that are thought to represent the Dacian king. Note the pair of dragon standards in front of him.<br />From the Column in situ. Similar to Cichorius Pl. LIV (scene 75) and Coarelli Pl. 88. RBU2013.3809.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_7207-crop-web.jpg]35800TRAJAN'S COLUMN LV/LXXV (scene 75): Decebalus
Scene 75/LXXV: Detail of Decebalus(?). At the back of the Dacian line offering itself in surrender to Trajan stands a prominent Dacian on a rocky outcrop, extending his hands towards the emperor. He is shown here on the left, in front of two other Dacians who appear in conversation, perhaps sharing their grief at the ritual of defeat. The prominent location of this figure and his placement higher on a rocky outcrop has led to his identification as Decebalus himself.<br />From cast 198, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LV, scene 75 and Coarelli Pl. 88. Ref: RBU2011.7207.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_89_lv_lxxvi_7210-web.jpg]35690TRAJAN'S COLUMN LV/LXXVI (Scene 76): Destruction of fortifications
Scene 76/LXXVI: Two Dacians hack at their fortifications with metal tools (now missing), as King Decebalus surrenders on the left (not visible in this photo). From cast 199, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LV, scene 76 and Coarelli Pl. 89. Ref: RBU2011.7210.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_89_lv-lvi_lxxvi_7209-web.jpg]35800TRAJAN'S COLUMN LV-LVI/LXXVI (Scene 76): Dacian civilians
Scene 76/LXXVI: Dacian men, women, and children lament at the surrender of Decebalus who stands to the left (not visible in this photo.<br />From casts 199-201, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pls. LV-LVI, scene 76 and Coarelli Pl. 89. Ref: RBU2011.7209.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_89_lvi_lxxvi_7211-web.jpg]35290TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVI/LXXVI (Scene 76): Dacian deportation
Scene 76/LXXVI: A Dacian father grasps a boy's arm, pulling him firmly away. The Dacians are being deported from their lands as per the terms of King Decebalus' surrender.<br />From cast 201, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVI, scene 76 and Coarelli Pl. 89. Ref: RBU2011.7211.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_7056-web.jpg]35570TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVI/LXXVII (Scene 77): Final Address
Scene 77/LXXVII: In his final adlocutio of the first Dacian War, Trajan addresses his soldiers He is dressed in his traveling clothes for departure. The raised arms of the soldiers may indicate the acclamation of his troops as he is hailed "Dacicus" (Coarelli 2000: 134).<br />From casts 202-203, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVI, scene 77 and Coarelli Pls. 90. Ref: RBU2011.7056.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_91-92_lvii_lxxviii_7212-composite-web.jpg]36130TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVII/LXXVIII (scene 78): Victory and Trophies
Scene 78/LXXVIII: A winged Victory inscribes a shield bordered with laurel leaves at the close of the first Dacian War. Her left foots rests upon a Dacian helmet (note the others at the base of and mounted upon the trophy itself. <br />From casts 204-206, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVII, scene 78 and Coarelli Pls. 91-91. Ref: RBU2011.7212-composite.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_img_3819-web.jpg]36360TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVII/LXXVIII (scene 78): Victory
Scene 78/LXXVIII: At the conclusion of the first Dacian War the winged goddess Victoria inscribes a record of Trajan's victory upon a shield. Her left foot rests upon a helmet. She is flanked by two trophies. The image appears halfway up the Column on the northwest side, probably facing the principal entrance to the Forum complex from the direction of the Campus Martius.<br />From the Column in situ. RBU2013.3819<br />Cichorius Pl. LVII, Scene 78.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_92_lvii_lxxviii_7214-web.jpg]35030TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVII/LXXVIII (Scene 78) (Detail of Victory)
A winged Victory inscribes the report of Trajan's victory on a shield.<br />From cast 205, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVII, scene 78 and Coarelli Pls. 91-92. Ref: RBU2011.7214.
[img src=http://www.trajans-column.org/wp-content/flagallery/scenes74-78/thumbs/thumbs_91_lvii_lxxviii_7215-web.jpg]35360TRAJAN'S COLUMN LVII/LXXVIII (Scene 78): The left trophy
A detail of the first of the two trophies flanking the winged Victory at the center of the frieze. This trophy comprises a Dacian cloak, several shields, a helmet with starburst patterns on the cranium and cheekpieces, as well as four draco standards.<br />From cast 204, now in the Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Compare Cichorius Pl. LVII, scene 78 and Coarelli Pl. 91. Ref: RBU2011.7215.